Blog Smith

Blog Smith is inspired by the myth of Hephaestus in the creation of blacksmith-like, forged materials: ideas. This blog analyzes topics that interest me: IT, politics, technology, history, education, music, and the history of religions.

Sunday, November 30, 2014

Obama Stole Election

Stole

Common Core History Nonsense

Enochs High School principal Deb Rowe in charge in California, social studies teacher Janeen Zambo read from a breakup note to the students ab Nonsense

Saturday, November 29, 2014

Ian Hunter, Infinity Music Hall & Bistro

Sat, November 29, 2014 Norfolk, CT Show at 8 PM Infinity Hall Norfolk 20 Greenwoods Rd W Norfolk, CT 06058
Pic
http://www.infinityhall.com/DrivingDirections/#

Obama's America: Half the Country on Welfare

Increasing Poverty

Friday, November 28, 2014

Ian Hunter, The Tabernacle, Mount Tabor, N.J.





Vinny C: ‘Just wanted to thank you for two tremendous shows at New Hope and Mount Tabor. I’m the guy you asked to hold your guitar while you removed your jacket at the Tabernacle. I have to say – apart from major life events like getting married and watching my songs being born – that was probably the coolest thing that ever happened to me . Great performances by you and the boys.’ I remember that!

Claim ticket at door.
559 E. Main St. Denville, N.J., 07834
Doors open, 7 pm
Show: 7:30 pm


Liberals Shoot Guns for the First Time

Liberals

Thursday, November 27, 2014

Private.me Search Engine

Wednesday, November 26, 2014

Tuesday, November 25, 2014

Civilization and Reacting to the Past, Assignment 6.2 The Final Product Pitch

Assignment 6.2: The Final Product Pitch

INTRODUCTION

Through the course I’ve learned about a variety of educational theories and other elements that go into designing an effective educational technology. Now it’s time to take my big idea that I’ve been developing, wrap up all the pieces, and arrange a final product pitch. What I'll have is a package of materials that clearly describes what my idea is, what its merits are, and some logical backing for my claims.

WHAT TO DO

In order to polish my product pitch and create my final presentation, I'll take everything I’ve worked on so far and make sure it all fits together into a coherent package. In this final pitch, I will make sure it’s clear that my product is based in good pedagogy and learning theory. I'll also consider the challenges I may face as I imagine developing a finished product and marketing it to my users. My goal is to convince the decision-makers that this is a valuable product that should be developed. The key areas to cover include:
    • Why is there a need for this product?
    • There is a need for this product because students need to be engaged for a lengthy amount of time and traditional classes do not address the working, adult learner. Three general points may be made as an introduction:

      • To appreciate history
      • To understand the struggles of democracy and how to accomplish it
      • To understand how democratic societies must balance individual vs. social needs
    • What will it teach and how?
    • It will show students how civilizations survive, prosper, and address important issues such as war and peace. It will teach how civilizations have survived, prospered, or ceased to exist and why. The how of it is that rather than reading a book or listen to lectures, the students will have to build a civilization of their own. During the first part of the course the students will play the game, Civilization. 

           Civilization is a series of turn-based strategy video games, many of them produced by Sid Meier (Sid Meier's Civilization). As of 12 March 2008, the Civilization franchise has sold more than 8 million copies. There are also several traditional Civilization games. All titles in the series share similar game play, centered on building a civilization on a macro-scale from prehistory up to the near future. Each turn allows the player to move his or her units on the map, build or improve new cities and units, and initiate negotiations with the computer-controlled players. In between turns, computer players can do the same. The player will also choose technologies to research. These reflect the cultural, intellectual, and technical sophistication of the civilization, and usually allow the player to build new units or to improve their cities with new structures. In most games in the series, one may win by military conquest, achieving a certain level of culture, building an interstellar space ship, or achieving the highest score, among other means.



              Reacting games developed as a genre of experiential education games in the United States in the late 1990s from work done by Mark Carnes at Barnard College. The prototype for these games is currently published by Norton. This pedagogy was originally developed for use in freshman seminar and history classes  and quickly expanded into religion, political science, and science. Unlike the video games that are central to the serious games movement, reacting games rely almost entirely on reading, writing, and speaking.

    • Who will use it and in what context?
    • Working adults in a University will use the technology and role-play in four-hour weekly class sessions for ten weeks. The average age of the learners is 33 and they generally have had some college level experience. They are often knowledgeable from work and life experiences.As a typical type of learner they are - visual and balancing important, competing interests, family responsibilities, jobs, health, etc.The students struggle but after three quarters most students will continue and finish if they get that far.

    • How will learners be assessed either within or outside of your intervention?
    • Learners will be assessed in quizzes, papers, oral presentations, and in role-play.


        STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES
        Students will:
        1. Explain how key social, cultural, and artistic contributions contribute to historical changes.
        2. Explain the importance of situating a society’s cultural and artistic expressions within a historical context.
        3. Identify major historical developments in world cultures during the eras of antiquity to the Renaissance.
        4. Identify and describe key artistic styles in the visual arts of world cultures during the eras of antiquity to the Renaissance.
        5. Identify and describe key literary works, styles, and writers from world cultures during the eras of antiquity to the Renaissance.
        6. Explore the presence of cultural parallels between the world’s cultures.
        7. Examine the influences of intellectual, religious, political, and socio-economic forces on social, cultural, and artistic expressions.
        8. Use technology and information resources to research issues in the study of world cultures.
        9. Write clearly and concisely about world cultures using proper writing mechanics.
        10.  Demonstrate their knowledge of basic literary, philosophical, social, and cultural developments that affect the interpretation of texts, artifacts, and historical events.
        11. Develop strategies on how to read and/or interpret literary texts and artifacts from the ancient world, such as art objects, material remains, monuments, inscriptions, and so on.
        12. Appraise information in primary sources so as to appreciate the values of the ancient Greek culture.
        13. Distinguish the different theoretical approaches in evaluating primary sources from the ancient Greek world.
        14. Create and Role - play a character based on primary sources, representing key positions, as outlined in the Student Reader.
        15. Engage in debate through improvisation and composition of consistent, historically accurate and carefully argued speeches. 16. Each student shall communicate effectively.

        The oral communication rubric, for example, scores levels in central message, delivery techniques, language, organization, and use of supporting material. Each rubric provides graduated “levels” from 0–4, which echo the stages of Bloom’s traditional taxonomy. 1 is the benchmark, 2 and 3 are key milestones in student development, and 4 indicates the capstone.

                  The Civilization computer game contains several concepts that can be used to strengthen students’ learning and prepare them for the international conflict role-play, Reacting to the Past. I will detail which learning aims in the University curriculum we expect to cover, and how they relate to Civilization.
                   The Social Studies curriculum in the University is characterized by five main areas: the individual and society, working and business life, politics and democracy, and culture and international relations. Each of these contain between five and nine competency aims that the student is expected to attain by the end of the course.
                    Though this game can be used in relation to certain competence aims within several of the main areas, I find it to be particularly relevant for preparing for the role play and international relations issues found in Reacting to the Past. The competence aims for international relations are as follows:

        “the student should be able to:
        • define the concept of power and provide examples of how power is practiced in the world
        • explain the concept of globalization and assess various consequences of globalization
        • provide examples of international cooperation and describe your Civilization's involvement
        • elaborate on historic activities for peace and human rights and explain the your role in international activities
        • elaborate on your civilization's aims and governing bodies and discuss your relationship to the world community
        • use digital tools to find examples of different types of conflict in the world and present an international conflict and proposals for solving this conflict
        • elaborate on why some countries are poor and some rich, and discuss measures to reduce poverty in the world
        • elaborate on what characterizes international terrorism and reflect on the causes of terrorism
        • discuss relations between economic growth, the environment and sustainable development”
              I will provide a description of how some concepts in Civilization can be used in relation to these competence aims.

              define the concept of power and provide examples of how power is practiced in the world
              An important aspect of the game is the interaction between leaders of different civilizations. In order to access vital resources or technologies, the player needs to enter into diplomatic agreements with other civilizations. The player’s level of success in these negotiations is dependent on their relative military, technological, economic and cultural power.
               explain the concept of globalization and assess various consequences of globalization
               Though it is theoretically possible to succeed playing this game utilizing a completely isolationist policy, the civilizations become increasingly dependent on each other throughout the game as trade partners and military allies.
               provide examples of international cooperation and describe your civilization’s international involvement
               The player has the opportunity to enter into bi-lateral and multi-lateral treaties and agreements with the other civilizations (Trade agreements, Military alliances, embargoes etc.). In the modern era, if the United Nations World Wonder has been built, civilizations can sign binding resolutions on areas such as human rights, the ban of nuclear weapons and access to the international marketplace
                use digital tools to find examples of different types of conflict in the world and present an international conflict and proposals for solving this conflict
                The game gives players the opportunity to simulate actual or illustrative conflicts. These simulations might give the player a greater understanding of the geo-political conditions that lead to armed conflict, and how those conflicts may be resolved.
                elaborate on why some countries are poor and some rich, and discuss measures to reduce poverty in the world
                Resources are divided unevenly across the playing field. Civilizations that originate near high yield resources develop more rapidly than others. Economic and population growth will quickly stagnate in civilizations that neglect the development of infrastructure (roads, railroads, irrigation). Furthermore, the choice of civics and the civilizations’ relationship with other civilizations will impact its level of affluence.
                elaborate on what characterizes international terrorism and reflect on the causes of terrorism
                Barbarian warriors and settlements, which the player will encounter in the early stages of the game, can to a certain extent be thought of as analogous to modern non-state terrorists. In the later stages of the game poverty, oppressive governments, foreign occupation, as well as discrepancy between the religion of the people and state religion, cause unhappiness. This in turn may cause the citizenry to revolt. Several parallels can be drawn between this and the causes of terrorism.
                 discuss relations between economic growth, the environment and sustainable development
                 Throughout the game, the player will need to make choices related to the environment and sustainable development. Players must assess the needs of their civilization both in the short term and the long term in order to succeed in the game. Some choices give immediate benefits, but may lead to future disaster. For instance constructing a coal plant will increase a city’s output, but will cause pollution which may lead to a dissatisfied and diseased population.

        The students will receive summative and formative assessments. Their instructions are as follows:
        1. Civics
        In Civilization, the player can select between several different civics. Read about these in the Civiliopedia and list important terms. Each of these may benefit, and/or disadvantage your civilization. Which civics did you choose for your civilization? Why? How did your choices benefit or disadvantage your civilization? Imagine you were running a real country, would you have made the same choices? Draw parallels between the game and the actual events of history in the textbook.
        2. Diplomacy
        Which kinds of international agreements can one enter into in Civilization? Which factors decide how successfully you are able to conduct negotiations? Is the way diplomacy is represented in the game an accurate simulation of how diplomacy is conducted in the real world? Why, why not? Draw parallels between the game and the actual events of history in the textbook.
        3. Power
        Define the term power in international relations. How do states in Civilization exert power over each other? Relate this to the concepts of Charismatic/Ideological power, economic power and military power. Refer to real-world examples in your text.

                  The Screenvideos are related to understanding the learning outcomes. In this task, students will use the WorldBuilder  function in Civilization to place resources, geographical features, units, cities etc. on the game map. They will then be using a screen recorder to demonstrate and comment on a recent or ongoing international conflict. Their instructions are as follows:
        • Your presentation should discuss causes for this conflict arising as well as suggestions as to how this conflict could be resolved. You are expected to demonstrate understanding of the learning material and to utilize correct terminology in your presentations.
        • Start your presentation by defining how you understand the term “conflict” for the purpose of this assignment.
        • Screenvideo/Screenshots from Civilization gameplay should be used as an illustrative tool in your presentation.
        • Duration: 7-10 minutes
        • It will be up to you to decide which digital tools you will use to make your presentation, but if you require technical assistance some recommended tools could include iMovie, Camstudio, standard record function in Windows and Windows Moviemaker
        • Recommended resources:you may select an ongoing conflict that you find interesting (subject to my approval)
        List of Civics for Assessment (based on Civilization IV): Quiz (on Google Docs)

         
        • In the Google document I have listed all the different civics that can be used in Civilization
        • I have divided the class into pairs – Each pair will work with two terms. 
        • Write a short description and be prepared to present a definition in your own words. The first sentence should provide a general definition of the term. The next 3-5 sentences should be an explanation of historical/cultural context and/or some facts related to the term.
        • You are then going to be partnered with another pair/share partner where you will explain the meaning of the terms to each other. Bring a pen and paper, and take notes. Make sure you ask questions if you don´t understand the description 
        • We will end the session with a quiz on the terms that you have been working with.
        Civilization Log - Week 1 (etc.): on Google Docs
      • What research do you plan to conduct in conjunction with this tool?
      • I created two research survey polls.
        Table 1: Survey on Students’ Self-reported Experience with Civilization and Reacting

        1. Were the two games (Civilization and Reacting to the Past) an advantage or disadvantage compared to “normal” classes?
        Advantage
        Disadvantage
        Both

        2. Did you learn more through the games?
        Yes
        No

        3. Did you do more work for the game than you would have done otherwise?
        Yes
        No

        4. Would you recommend friends take classes with Civilization and Reacting Games?
        Yes
        No
        Depends

        Table 2

        Indicators of Student Engagement in Combined RTTP classes

        Student Behavior
        Asked Questions in class
        1. More than 3Times
        2. Never

        2. Contributed to class discussions
        Yes
        No

        3. Prepared more than one draft of a paper
        Yes
        No

        4. Worked on a project that required using information from more than one source
        Yes
        No

        5. Worked on a project that required using primary documents
        Yes
        No

        6. Included conflicting perspectives in class discussions or writing assignments
        Yes
        No

        7. Came to class without completing reading or assignments
        Yes
        No

        8. Worked with other students on a project during class
        Yes
        No

        9. Worked with other students on a project outside class
        Yes
        No

        10. Stayed late or came early to discuss issues from class with classmates
        Yes
        No

        11. Talked to the professor about class materials or assignments during class
        Yes
        No

      • What are the biggest risks you see with this project?
      • The biggest risks are that the game, Civilization, and the role-play, Reacting to the Past will prove too overwhelming and challenging for working, adult students.

      • What are the biggest impacts you hope the project can make?
      • The biggest impacts are that the Pilot courses are expanded and extended to the larger field and in other classes within the University.

    DELIVERY FORMAT

    This final presentation or package of materials should be more involved than any of your previous assignments. This is only natural since it is encompassing all the questions you’ve worked to answer up to this point. It should definitely be a combination of formats, perhaps including some of the following:
      • Written summary of your product
               As noted, the age of the typical student is thirty three and knowledge level of the learner may include previous, but not necessarily successful college level work. The product should assist students who want to "get back on track" and graduate. If they can make it through three Quarters they do to finish their education at the University. They need general education classes to graduate and they often come to the class with mixed feelings. There are no majors in Humanities thus the course could simply be seen as yet another class to fulfill and they have not particular enthusiasm for the course. The course is divided into two five week components: five weeks of Civilization in which the student will mostly be working alone; thereafter, they will follow up this part of the course with another type of experience, in role-playing and with the entire group. In the first part of the course the instructor will assist individuals as in a Lab situation; and in the second, the instructor becomes the Game Master and only intervenes when needed since the students will run the class. They are engaged with each part of the course for five weeks, in once a week class sessions that run for four hours each. In the first part--Civilization--the game provides them feedback and their progress will be clear if their civilization prospers or ends depending on how well they play the game. In the second part, they are constantly interacting with their peers and a set number of guidelines are available to follow. In Civilization there are prompts that guide their play and a Civipedia accompanies the game for reference. In Reacting to the Past, the Game Master is always in the room for guidance.
      • If there are community elements built in, how do they utilize them?
      • Are there offline elements that complement the technology experience?
      • How does the learner know when they are done? What do they feel when they have finished?
      • Figures illustrating the problem/need
      • References/citations to supporting research

    References

        Active Learning
        Active Learning: Creating Excitement in the Classroom. 1991 ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Reports. Bonwell, Charles C.; Eison, James A.
        http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED336049
        http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/0-9/1066/game/index.html

        Design-based Research
    Toward a Design Science of Education
    Author: Alan Collins, Design-Based Research: An Emerging Paradigm for Educational Inquiry, Authors: The Design-Based Research Collective
                 
    The Road Ahead for State Assessments


    Stealth Assessment
    Author: Val Shute
    Additional publications from Val Shute are available from her web site

    Technology to Support Next-Generation Classroom Formative Assessment for Learning
    Author: Edys Quellmalz

    Collaborative Learning
    Jean Lave, Etienne Wenger and Communities of Practice

    Connected Learning

    Paradigm Shifts and Instructional Technology
    Author: Timothy Koschmann

    Learning and Teaching
    Putting Understanding Up Front
    Authors: David Perkins and Tina Blythe

    How Experts Differ from Novices
    Chapter 2 of How People Learn (free download after creating an account)

    Learning and Transfer
    Chapter 3 of How People Learn

    Educational Theories
    Overview of Vygotsky’s Ideas

    Piaget’s Constructivism, Papert’s Constructionism: What’s the difference?
    Author: Edith Ackermann

    Situating Constructionism
    Authors: Seymour Papert and Idit Harel

    The Gears of My Childhood
    Author: Seymour Papert

    Constructing Knowledge and Transforming the World
    Author: Edith Ackermann

    The Threshold of Democracy: Athens in 403 B.C. (Reacting to the Past) by Josiah Ober
    Other authors: Mark C. Carnes,W. W. Norton & Company, 2014


    Reacting to the Past Game Designer's Handbook by Nicolas W Proctor
    CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform



    Minds on fire: how role-immersion games transform college by Mark C. Carnes
    Cambridge, Massachusetts : Harvard University Press, 2014
      • Mockup screen shots
        Ways to Win: Victory Types in Civilization V 

      • There are several options on how to win a game of Civilization V. Each guide contains the requirements you'll need to meet in order to score a victory and tips on doing so efficiently.

        Culture/Tourism Victory In the expansion pack, Brave New World, there is an update for Cultural Victory requirements and relies on a Tourism system to overcome Culture of other Nations, granting the victory. Key to this victory are Boosting Tourism, Great Works of Art and Artifacts, along with Wonders which the player should build to make Victory arrive earlier in a game.

        Diplomatic Victory Diplomatic Victory is available fairly late in the game, requiring the formation of the U.N. from the World Congress. Learn about Delegates, the importance of City-State Allies, and how you can be elected World Leader and win the game through Diplomacy.

        Domination Victory The Domination Victory requires your ability to control other Civilizations to be declared the winner. There should be a strategy to pick your targets, when to cease warfare and declare peace before moving on to your next war.

        Scientific Victory requires the Space Race victory condition. Your goal is to be the first to leave the planet, which implies technological superiority. To do that, you'll need a load of science to be the first to get the tech, and production cities to make your space ship parts.

    About Social Policies
    Social Policies are one of the primary means of customizing your Civilization and propelling it toward victory. Choosing good Policies in the right order will be a major factor in winning a game.  This Guide to all Social Policies will give you extra information on every Policy in the game, while also providing the in-game description of each Policy's bonus.

    Social Policies are purchased with Culture. Each City has its own Cultural output that determines border expansion, which is added to the Empire's total for acquiring new Policies. The Social Policy screen (pictured above) can be accessed with F5 and shows the number of turns to your next Policy. This can also be seen by hovering your mouse over Culture in the top bar on your screen. Each new City you found will increase Social Policy costs by 10%, so bear that in mind and ensure that Cities have cultural buildings like Monuments, Amphitheaters, and Opera Houses fit with Great Works and taking advantage of Theming Bonuses where possible.

    Social Policies have prerequisites, and must be unlocked in a certain order through a simple tree layout. There are five Policies per tree, so a total of 45 may be chosen, not including Ideologies. There are nine Social Policy Trees in Civilization V with general information on the bonuses of each for your Civilization.

    Adopting (taking one point) in a Social Policy will give you its starter bonus while also enabling you to build a specific Wonder. Adopting Ideologies also unlock one Wonder each, so there are twelve that have this requirement. You'll require the appropriate Technology, as well. Some less-popular Social Policies like Honor, Liberty, Piety, and Exploration have Wonders that are easier to build than others, even in high-difficulty games because there are fewer competitors for those Wonders. Others, like Tradition's Hanging Gardens, Commerce's Big Ben, and Aesthetics' Uffizi, are harder to attain unless you focus on constructing them.

    Four types of Social Policies (Tradition, Liberty, Honor, and Piety) are available at the start, with Patronage and Aesthetics being available in the Classical era, and if you progress that far, Commerce and Exploration in Medieval, and Rationalism unlocking in the Renaissance. If you have a new Policy coming in twenty turns and want to choose a new tree that is locked because your Scientific progress is not in the right Era, you may sometimes push Science in that direction to advance an Era and ensure that your next Policy choice is available. Add up the turn times on any research you must do and focus your Cities on Science if necessary to ensure this happens as planned. This is wise so that you can avoid adopting a tree that you do not necessarily intend to finish, nor need the adoption bonus from.

      • Video showing potential users
      • Video introducing Civilization and Reacting to the Past http://vimeo.com/112856056 Civilization and Reacting to the Past: Assignment 6.2 The Final Product Pitch from Iconoclast on Vimeo.
      • Sample assessment: Discussion
      • "Ancient Greek Athletics; the Athenian Acropolis; Theater" Please respond to the following:
        • In Chapter 4, pp. 111-112 and 116, there is discussion of the rise of the city-state of Sparta and its very militaristic social organization, and then a discussion of the ancient Olympics. The Olympics were apparently an all-male event, but there were many other local and regional Greek festivals involving athletic contests. Now, see this "running girl" item (from Sparta) at the British Museum: http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/gr/b/bronze_figure_of_a_girl.aspx. Analyze what this tells you of the female status in some Greek city-states, especially Sparta, and also about Greek athletics.
        • In Chapter 5, see pp. 140-148 in our class text for discussion and images of the Athenian Acropolis and the art that was once there. On pp. 142-3, the Closer Look shows a photo of the Parthenon today and an artistic cutaway showing what some of the parts are designated and what they once looked like. Fig. 5.5 has a nice image of a model of the ancient Acropolis to see what it once looked like. Fig. 5.8 shows what the statue of Athena in the Parthenon once looked like. Figs. 5.9-to-5.11 are photos of some of the Elgin Marbles – still in the British Museum. Watch this video from the British Museum and its vast collection related to this: http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/galleries/ancient_greece_and_rome/room_18_greece_parthenon_scu.aspx. Even better, now watch a great video of a digital reconstruction at http://arth251f11.blogs.wm.edu/2011/09/17/digital-reconstruction-of-the-parthenon/. Finally, see pp. 151-156 about the ancient Greek theater, some of which could seat 15-20,000 and yet have great acoustics. After doing these tasks, discuss here two (2) specific items or informational bits that you learned, and suggest their significance to ancient Greek culture and the western heritage in the arts. Then, comment on the plot of the ancient comedy Lysistrata (p. 152) and how it might go over as a play today.

        Quiz:

         1. Which statement is true of the Biblical "Song of Songs"?
        Answer
               
        King David sang this when he was a young shepherd.
               
        The woman's voice is especially strong.
               
        It is a chant of the king's great achievements.

        It is a religious song of God's deeds for Israel.

        2. What distinguishes the Law Code of Hammurabi from its predecessors?
        Answer
               
        It is the first to name the laws' author
               
        It is the most complete set of laws
               
        It is the first stele in a phallic shape
               
        It is the largest stele ever found

        3. Why is the Royal Standard of Ur such an important discovery?
        Answer
               
        It provides the only known images of Sargon I
               
        It is one of the earliest example of historical narrative
               
        It shows the type of weapons the Sumerians possessed
               
        It is the first example of music being shown in art

        4. How did the Mesopotamians view human society?
        Answer
               
        As masters of their own fates
               
        As on the same level as the gods
               
        As part of a larger society
               
        As mere servants to the gods

        5. What were ziggurats most likely designed to resemble?
        Answer
               
        A city
               
        A garden
               
        A volcano
               
        A mountain

        6. Why did the Egyptian sculptors idealize rulers in their sculptures?
        Answer
               
        Imperfect representations were cause for the sculptors' executions
               
        The rulers' perfection mirrored the perfection of the gods themselves
               
        The grid on which sculptors based their work demanded standardization
               
        Egyptian statues are generic and probably bear no resemblance to the person

        7. On what measure are the squares in the Egyptian grid system based?
        Answer
               
        Pi
               
        An average foot's length
               
        The hieroglyph for ankh
               
        One clenched fist

        8. What kind of government was found in Ancient Egypt?
        Answer
               
        Anarcho-syndicism
               
        Kleptocracy
               
        Plutocracy
               
        Theocracy

        9. The Egyptian word for sculpture is the same as the word for what other act?
        Answer
               
        Writing
               
        Painting
               
        Giving birth
               
        Preserving

        10. How are the figures on the Palette of Narmer similar to those on the Mesopotamian Royal Standard of Ur?
        Answer
               
        The king is shown as larger than anyone else
               
        The king is portrayed as having lighter skin
               
        The king is positioned in the center of each scene
               
        The king is standing beside a god

        Essay
        Project Paper
        Cultural Activity Report
      • Written research plan
      • Bullets covering risks/impacts
      • Companion paraphernalia (t-shirts, stuffed animals, etc.)
      • ...and whatever else!








    1
    SISIUTIL’S CIV IV STRATEGY GUIDE FOR BEGINNERS


    VERSION 5.0 – OCTOBER 17, 2011



    INTRODUCTION
     
     
    Herein you will find a compilation of tips, tricks, tactics, and strategies gleaned from the Civilization Fanatics Center forums (http://forums.civfanatics.com/) and from my own experience playing the game.


    Please note that this document is not meant to be a definitive collection of Civilization IV strategies. Furthermore, in a game as complex as Civ IV, many different strategies may be effective, including some that run counter to the advice listed here. Rather, this document is intended to simply provide a foundation for players new to the game (even if they’ve played previous Civilization versions) so they can achieve success, move up the difficulty levels, and enjoy one of the best computer games on the market.
    Version 3.0 & later Update: The guide now includes items that apply to both the Warlords and Beyond the Sword expansion packs. Wherever these appear, either the term Warlords/BtS or BtS is included, in bold, to make it clear that these pointers do not apply to ―vanilla‖ (non-expansion pack) Civilization IV. Warlords/BtS indicates that the pointer applies to both expansion packs, while BtS indicates that it only applies to Beyond the Sword.




    TABLE OF CONTENTS
     
    1. GENERAL.................................................................................................................................................................. 2

    2. EARLY/MID GAME .................................................................................................................................................... 3

    3. TECHNOLOGY .......................................................................................................................................................... 7

    4. CITIES ....................................................................................................................................................................... 9

    5. MILITARY ................................................................................................................................................................ 19

    6. WONDERS .............................................................................................................................................................. 23

    7. CULTURE ................................................................................................................................................................ 28

    8. GREAT PEOPLE ..................................................................................................................................................... 30

    9. DIPLOMACY ............................................................................................................................................................ 33

    10. RELIGION .............................................................................................................................................................. 35

    11. ESPIONAGE .......................................................................................................................................................... 36

    12. VASSALS (WARLORDS/BTS) .............................................................................................................................. 38

    13. CORPORATIONS (BTS) ....................................................................................................................................... 41

    14. RANDOM EVENTS (BTS) ..................................................................................................................................... 43

    15. VICTORY ............................................................................................................................................................... 44
     
     
    APPENDIX: COMMON ACRONYMNS & ABBREVIATIONS ..................................................................................... 46 2




    1. GENERAL
     
     
    Cities, military units, and civics all have associated maintenance costs, cities especially. Having a large number of cities can be very expensive, especially early in the game.
    Civics changes result in one or more turns of anarchy, during which your civilization makes no progress—no research, no building, and so on. Excessive civics changes can therefore put you behind the other civilizations, especially those with the Spiritual trait that do not experience anarchy. (In BtS, you can change civics without experiencing anarchy during a golden age.)


    1.1 WORKERS & TILE IMPROVEMENTS
    Workers are vital units that improve tiles, build roads, chop forests, and so on. Without them, your civilization will stagnate.

    Try to have approximately 1.5 workers per city. If you have four cities, for example, you should have about six workers.

    Workers should prioritize tiles with resources first, as these provide the highest yields and, often, additional benefits as well (such as increased happiness or health). A road is almost always required on the resource tile to make the resource available to your civilization.

    After resources, focus on improving tiles that a city’s citizens are working but that are unimproved.

    Forests can be chopped to provide production points (―hammers‖). Have your workers chop down forests to accelerate production of the units/improvements/wonders you need.
    Do not set workers to auto-improve: they tend to build too may farms and not enough cottages, among other things. You’ll be better off if you manage the workers yourself. If you still want to automate workers, consider turning on ―Automated workers leave existing improvements‖ and ―Automated workers do not chop forests‖ in Game Options.


    You can assign more than one worker to implement the same tile improvement on the same tile. This will accelerate the completion of the tile improvement.
    A railroad will increase the production yield of a tile with a mine, oil well, or lumbermill (or a quarry in Warlords/BtS) by 1.


    1.2 SLAVERY
    The Slavery civic allows you to sacrifice part of a city’s population (―whipping‖) to rush production of a building or unit.

    ―Whipping‖ results in 10 turns (normal speed) of one additional unhappy citizen in that city.

    You can never sacrifice more than half of the city’s population.

    Since the Globe Theatre eliminates all unhappiness, you can whip away as many citizens as you want in the city where it’s located and there will be no unhappy citizens.

    If done properly, you can use slavery to eliminate unhappiness. If a city has more unhappy than happy citizens, eliminating the unhappy citizens can make the city ―happy‖ again. This can be especially valuable in the early game, when the ―happiness cap‖ of your cities may be quite low. (The initial happiness cap is lower on each successive difficulty level.)
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    2. EARLY/MID GAME
     
    2.1 GENERAL
    The most important early resources are: copper, horses, and iron (for military); stone and marble (for Wonders); gold, silver, and gems (for your economy and happiness); and food resources.

    The best initial city build orders involve Workers, Work Boats, Warriors, and Settlers. Any of these could be your first build in the city, for varying reasons and uses:
    o Worker: A Worker can chop forests to rush completion of other builds (once you’ve discovered Bronze Working). As noted above, they are also needed to improve tiles around your cities. Remember that your city’s population does not grow while building a Worker (or a Settler). If you have a tile that can be improved next to your capital, and the technology required to improve it, building a Worker first is probably your best choice.

    o Work Boat: If you have a coastal start with seafood in the capital’s ―Big Fat Cross‖ and you start with the Fishing technology, a Work Boat should be your first build. Seafood resources are excellent tiles, providing both food and commerce.

    o Warrior: Many players prefer to build a Warrior (or Scout, if you start with Hunting) first, timing the build by changing the tile worked by the capital’s first citizen so that the unit is finished on the same turn that the city grows to size 2. The Warrior then joins your initial unit in exploring the map, while the next build (usually a Worker) is completed faster because you have two citizens working tiles, not just one. A Warrior can also escort and protect Workers and Settlers on the way to a new city site; once there, the Warrior in turn becomes the new city’s first defender

    o Settler: Building a Settler first allows you to have a second city in place very early in the game. However, you should research a tech that reveals a strategic resource (such as Animal Husbandry for horses or Bronze Working for copper) to determine where this city should be located.

    The best initial tech research paths vary, but Bronze Working is generally one of the most valuable early technologies and should be a priority, if not your top priority. This is because (a) it reveals the locations of copper on the map, which can be used to build Axemen, a powerful early military unit; (b) it grants you the ability to chop forests to accelerate production; and (c) it enables access to the Slavery civic, which allows you to sacrifice population to accelerate production.


    Other valuable early techs are the ―worker techs‖ (such as Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, The Wheel, Mining, Pottery, Fishing, Masonry, and Hunting) which allow you to improve tiles around your cities.
    Warlords/BtS Addendum: Because Chariots receive a +100% bonus when attacking Axemen in the expansion packs, Animal Husbandry is a more valuable early technology in Warlords/BtS— especially for fending off barbarians. Remember, however, that Chariots also require The Wheel and horses.

    The best early military unit is the Axeman; Chariots are also useful because they are relatively cheap (and are more useful in Warlords/BtS, as noted above). Others are Unique Units (UUs) of Civs with an early one (Rome, Inca, Aztec, Mali, Mongolia, Persia; in Warlords/BtS, Carthage, the Celts, and the Zulus; in BtS, Maya, Native America, and Sumer.)


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    Once you discover Pottery, have your Workers create several cottage tile improvements to generate commerce. This is known as ―cottage spam‖. The best tiles for cottages are those next to rivers for an immediate +1 commerce bonus. Note: A cottage tile must have a citizen assigned to work it in order for the cottage’s revenue to increase (see the next point).


    To assign citizens to work specific tiles, go into the city screen (double-click on the city). Each tile surrounded by a white circle has a citizen assigned to work it. Click on a white-circled tile to remove the citizen from that tile, then click on a different (non-circled) tile to re-assign that citizen to work that tile. Obviously, the more citizens a city has, the more tiles it can work and the more food, hammers, and commerce it can produce.
    2.2 EXPLORATION
    You start the game with a Settler and one of two basic units: either a Warrior or, if your Civ starts with the Hunting technology, a Scout. Use the Warrior or Scout to explore and reveal terrain.

    Moving an exploring unit onto a hill will allow the unit to ―see‖ further, revealing more of the surrounding tiles.

    Since there is typically a great deal of forest and jungle on the map in the early stage of the game, it is often best to give your exploratory units Woodsman promotions as they earn experience points (―XPs‖). This increases their defensive strength on forest or jungle tiles, and with Woodsman II the unit has 2 moves through forest or jungle per turn—even Warriors, who only get 1 move per turn on clear tiles!

    Look for an opportunity to ―steal‖ an opponent’s Worker. It will hurt them and, if the Worker makes it back to your territory alive, will benefit you. This will require you to declare war, however, which can have long-term diplomatic consequences.
    2.2.1 SCOUTS VERSUS WARRIORS
    Warriors are stronger (strength 2) than Scouts (strength 1), get a +25% city defense bonus, and can attack other units, which includes capturing Workers (Scouts can only defend). Scouts, however, move faster (2 tiles per turn instead of 1) and have a +100% bonus when defending against animal attacks.

    It is usually not worthwhile to research the Hunting tech if your Civ doesn’t possess it just so you can build Scouts. The exception is if there is a resource requiring a Camp (Ivory, Fur, Deer) within one of your early cities’ workable areas.

    Remember that in forest, jungle, and on hills, both units move at the same speed.

    Scouts will never produce Barbarians from a tribal village, unlike all other units including Warriors.
    2.3 BARBARIANS
    When exploring, watch out for Barbarians. At first they appear in the form of animals, then in the form of military units.

    If you think a barbarian unit is likely to attack, the best thing to do is retreat if your unit is a Scout, or fortify if it’s a Warrior. (The likelihood and frequency of barb attacks increases with the difficulty level.)

    Try to move your exploring units so they end their turn in forest, jungle, hills, or best of all, a forested or jungled hill, for the defensive bonus.
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    Barbarians spawn in the ―fog of war‖—any darkened tile on the map, even if you’ve previously explored and revealed it. The exception is if another Civ has cultural boundaries in that area; barbarians will not spawn there.

    Barbarian animals will not enter your cultural boundaries. If you found a city on a tile adjacent to an animal, the animal will move outside of the city’s boundaries on the next turn.
    Barbarian military units will enter your boundaries. They will first pillage tile improvements, then attack the nearest city. To counter this, build roads to your improvements so city defenders can quickly move out to attack; also, build units such as chariots and horse archers which can move more tiles per turn—especially on roads—and attack the barbarians before they get to your tile improvements. You may also want to fortify units on particularly important early resources such as copper, horses, and iron.


    To prevent Barbarians from spawning, build and post sentries—often called ―fog busters‖—in the empty areas of the map (barbarian units cannot spawn within 2 tiles, in any direction, of a civ’s unit). Archers with Guerrilla (extra hill defense) promotions are well-suited for this; they’re relatively cheap, and when fortified on hills, they will remove more of the fog. Any Barbarians that still spawn will usually attack these units and are unlikely to win.

    Remember that fighting Barbarians provides your units with experience points toward promotions. So they’re not all bad. Barbarians will also sometimes found cities, which you can capture and keep if they’re in good locations.
    If Barbarians are spoiling the game for you, you can start a custom game and turn them off; however, you then lose the benefit of the experience points (―XPs‖) your units get from fighting them and the opportunity to capture their cities. Alternatively, in Warlords/BtS, you can build the Great Wall world wonder, which bans land-based barbarians from your territory forever.


    2.4 CITY MAINTENANCE
    Each city has a maintenance cost that detracts from the commerce it can contribute back to your civilization. Maintenance costs grow with the population of the city. They are also higher the further the city is from your capital (unless you’re running the State Property civic).

    City maintenance was purposely included by the game developers to reduce the effectiveness of REX (Rapid EXpansion) strategies. REX was used by players of previous versions of Civilization, where the key to the game was to build as many early cities as possible until no more land was available.

    Attempting to employ REX haphazardly in Civilization IV will cause your maintenance costs to rise, your research to drop to 0%, and your treasury to empty. Your units will eventually go on strike—meaning the game will automatically begin to disband units—because you can’t pay them. Since the other civilizations are continuing to research new technologies and expand their armies with more advanced units, you’ll eventually become a sitting duck.
    2.4.1 EARLY EXPANSION
    It is still possible and often advisable to found (or capture) several key cities early in the game; however, you must ensure that you have means of off-setting the rising city maintenance costs so you can still support research, the maintenance costs of your military, and so on.

    One way to deal with excessive early city maintenance costs is to simply avoid them by limiting the number of early cities you build (usually 4 to 6) until you can afford more. However, this may keep you from claiming some important city sites.
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    You can and should found additional cities if they will provide an early return on their investment, for example:
    o The city will claim a high-commerce tile such as gold, silver, or gems; working this tile will usually offset the city’s maintenance costs.

    o The city will claim a resource that will boost happiness (once again, gold, silver or gems; also ivory or furs), allowing you to grow your cities larger and work more tiles (especially cottage tiles, as the commerce from these will in turn support your economy).

    o Later in the game, calendar resources will be valuable for this purpose—so much so that you may want to claim them well in advance.

    o The city claims a key military resource you lack, such as copper, horses, or iron.

    o The city has several high-food tiles that will allow you to run several specialists.

    o The city will be in a key strategic location, such as on a narrow strip of land that will block rivals from expanding into your territory.

    o The city will be a very good to excellent production centre (military, wonders, workers, settlers).


    Initially, expansion will likely produce an adverse effect on your economy, forcing you to work more high commerce tiles and/or lower the research slider. Eventually, however, you should be able to bounce back or compensate for these effects (see below).
    2.4.2 MANAGING YOUR ECONOMY
    Early technologies that will assist your economy (and, thereby, help offset city maintenance costs):
    o Pottery: So you can improve tiles with cottages.

    o Writing, Sailing, the Wheel: These technologies support the creation of trade routes. Writing, besides enabling Open Borders, also allows you to build libraries and run scientist specialists.

    o Code of Laws: Allows you to build courthouses, which reduce maintenance by 50%.

    o Currency: This powerful technology adds a trade route to every city, allows you to build markets and wealth, and also enables trading items such as technologies and resources for gold.


    Build the Forbidden Palace national wonder (and, later, the Versailles world wonder), which acts as a second capital. Ensure that you build it a good distance from your capital to increase its effectiveness.

    Found a religion, spread it, and build its shrine (required: Great Prophet). Or capture another civ’s holy city. A holy city with a shrine provides 1 gold to the city for every city (domestic or foreign) where the holy city’s religion is present.

    ―Pointy-stick research‖: Build some military units and support your economy by capturing barbarian and/or foreign cities and/or pillaging their surrounding tile improvements.
    Build commerce/trade route multipliers such as markets and harbors, and, later in the game, grocers, banks, and customs houses (BtS).


    Run lower-cost civics; later in the game, run civics that increase commerce (such as Free Speech) or that reduce city maintenance (State Property).
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    3. TECHNOLOGY
     
    3.1 GENERAL
    It is not necessary, or even preferable, to keep the research slider at 100%. Circumstances in the game will likely force the slider to vary tremendously in order to stay in the black. This is normal.

    At certain points in the game, it will make sense to ―bee-line‖ to certain technologies (researching prerequisite techs toward a valuable end-goal tech, ignoring others).

    Some techs have additional benefits beyond granting the ability to build certain units, buildings, or improvements, and thus are often targets for ―bee-lining‖:
    o Free Technology: the first Civ to discover Liberalism gets a free technology.

    o Founding Religions: the first Civ to discover the following techs founds the matching religion:

    Meditation: Buddhism

    Polytheism: Hinduism

    Monotheism: Judaism

    Philosophy: Taoism

    Code of Laws: Confucianism

    Theology: Christianity

    Divine Right: Islam

    o Free Great People: the first Civ to discover the following techs gets a free Great Person:

    Music: Great Artist

    Economics: Great Merchant

    Physics: Great Scientist

    Fusion: Great Engineer

    Fascism: Great General (in Warlords/BtS)

    Communism: Great Spy (in BtS)


    You should also consider bee-lining to the technology that makes your civ’s Unique Unit (UU) available, or at least making that technology a high priority.
    In Warlords/BtS, your civ now also has a Unique Building (UB), and again, it makes sense to prioritize the technology that makes it available in order to gain the additional benefits of the UB as early as possible.


    3.2 TECH TRADING
    Discovering Alphabet enables the ability to trade technologies with other civilizations, making it another common bee-line target.

    Tech trading with other Civs is a sound strategy, with these caveats:
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    o DON’T trade/gift a new military tech, especially to a potential enemy, if it could be used against you soon.

    o DO trade/gift a military tech to a smaller, weaker Civ, or to a friendly ally, if it’s likely it will be used against one of your bigger, stronger opponents.

    o DON’T trade/gift a tech that allows building a Wonder if you are building it or are about to start building it yourself.

    o DON’T trade/gift Alphabet immediately after you discover it, as this allows rivals to tech trade.

    o DO trade/gift the same tech to other Civs in the same turn to keep them from trading/gifting it and gaining the techs and diplomacy points instead of you.

    o DO get a good deal: hover the mouse over each tech to discover its research cost. Make sure you get a tech of similar value in exchange. (Note: The AI usually insists on a good deal, and will want a more ―xpensive‖tech from you for a ―heaper‖one they’re offering.)

    o DON’T trade technologies excessively, especially as you move up the difficulty levels, as this will result in the other leaders refusing to trade any techs to you (See Section 3.2.1 WFYABTA, below).

    The AI civilizations will never trade a technology to you that enables building a spaceship part.


    You can sometimes get technologies from a rival civilization just by asking for them. The other leader must be at ―leased‖or ―riendly‖with you, and the technology has to be a relatively cheap one or one that you’ve nearly finished researching on your own. You might also get technologies from leaders who are ―autious‖ ―nnoyed‖ or ―urious‖ provided your military power is significantly higher than theirs—but you will earn a diplomatic demerit for it (―ou made an arrogant demand!‖.
    3.2.1 WFYABTA
     
     
    Too many tech trades can eventually result in other leaders refusing to trade techs with you; if this happens, when you hover the mouse pointer over any of their red-lined techs in the diplomacy screen, you will see ―e fear you are becoming too advanced‖(a.k.a. WFYABTA).

    The WFYABTA limit varies from one leader to another, and happens after fewer tech trades with each increase in difficulty level.

    The WFYABTA count is based upon the number of tech trades the leader in questions has ―een‖you perform with other civs that leader has also met. Therefore, tech trades with civilizations whom you have met, but whom the leader in question has not, do not count toward it.

    Also, any trades you conducted before meeting the leader in question do not count toward the limit. So when you first meet a leader on another continent once you have Optics, for example, their WFYABTA count with you will be 0, even if you have conducted many tech trades with the other leaders on your home continent.

    A leader who is ―riendly‖with you will always trade techs, even if their WFYABTA limit has been reached. (However, they still may not trade a tech to you for other reasons, such as if it’s a ―onopoly‖tech—i.e., they’re the only civ with whom they’re in contact that possesses that tech—or if it enables a wonder which they’re building.)

    A leader who has reached his/her WFYABTA limit with you might still agree to give you technologies as part of a peace deal to end a war—especially if that war is going badly for them.
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    4. CITIES
     
    4.1 BASICS: CITY PRODUCTION
    Cities produce three things from the 1 tile they occupy and the 20 surrounding them (the ―at cross‖: food (depicted by slices of bread), production (hammers), and commerce (coins).

    o Food is used only within the city where it’s produced, to support the population and to ensure that the city grows.

    o Production (a.k.a. ―ammers‖ is also used exclusively within the city, to build things such as military units, buildings, and Wonders.

    o Commerce is different, in that it is not directly used within the city but is contributed back to your civilization as a whole. (Because it is a special case, commerce is dealt with below in Section 4.4 Commerce.)


    While each tile produces a default amount of each item, the tiles can be improved by workers to increase or, in some cases, decrease the items produced by each tile. A farm, for example, increases the amount of food produced by a tile, while a workshop decreases it.

    Some tiles contain resources that provide additional yields beyond what a normal tile does; these resources can also be used for special production uses in your civilization as a whole, or can be traded to other civilizations for resources you lack, or for gold per turn (GPT).

    As with regular tile production, resources fall into three categories: food (such as sheep, wheat, and fish); production (such as bronze, horses, stone, iron, coal, and oil); and commerce (such as gold, gems, dye, and silver). Some resources provide bonuses in more than one category; for example, sugar and wine provide both additional food and also commerce.

    As in real life, resources in Civilization IV are prized commodities. You will want to found cities near several resources. You may even fight wars to gain access to particularly valuable ones, or to deny them to rivals.

    The choice of what tiles to work—especially early in the game, when your cities have a limited number of citizens to assign to tiles, and a limited number of workers to improve those tiles—will depend on many factors. These include the city’s specialization (see Section 4.6 on this topic below), your long-term and short-term goals, the city’s current build, and so on. For example, you may move citizens off of low-hammer tiles (those with extra food for growth and/or commerce) to ones with high hammer yields if the city is building a world wonder. Be prepared to enter the city screen on a regular basis and adjust the tile assignments as needed.
    4.2 CITY PLACEMENT
    A city’s surrounding terrain will play a large part in determining its best specialization (see section 4.6 City Specialization, below, for more details). The opposite is also true: if you are looking to build a certain city type, you will be looking for an area with specific types of terrain.


    Ideally you want a city to be able to grow to its maximum population so all the tiles in the fat cross can eventually be worked by its citizens.
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    Since some tiles do not produce the two food required to support the citizens working it (especially production-rich tiles like hills), you will need some tiles to produce additional food.
    Food resources such as pigs, rice, clams, and so on can provide the additional food needed, as can the farm tile improvement. It is a very good idea to include at least one food resource in a city’s fat cross. Besides food, you will likely want the city to focus on commerce or production—in some cases, a combination of both. Again, resources and tile improvements will determine and help with this.


    A source of fresh water (river, lake, oasis) provides a +2 health bonus if your city is on a tile immediately next to one. It also provides a water source for irrigating nearby tiles.

    Hills provide a defense bonus to units fortified in a city located on one. In addition, a city on a plains hill gets a +1 production bonus on that tile.

    Tiles beside rivers produce +1 commerce, making them attractive for cottages. However, you may also want to use some of these tiles for irrigation or watermills, so plan their use carefully.

    A common mistake is to place a city 1 tile from the coast; the AI does this frequently, to its detriment. Why is this sub-optimal? A city one tile from the coast cannot build a lighthouse, drydock, harbor, or customs house, but it will have some (perhaps several) water tiles in its BFC that cannot be improved.

    Does it make sense to settle right on top of a resource? It depends. Remember that by doing so, you will not gain the additional benefit (extra food, commerce, and/or hammers) you would have from improving the tile and working it. Therefore, it makes little or no sense to settle on top of food resources. Food is vital in the game—every slice of bread counts! You should also avoid founding a city on top of a high-yield resource such as gold, silver, or gems. However, resources with relatively low yields (e.g. wine, ivory) are good for settling upon if that’s the best location for the city. This gives you the additional advantage of having the resource available immediately, or as soon as you finish researching the enabling technology. In addition, founding a city on top of a resource makes it nearly impossible to pillage the resource or steal it via culture—so it may be appealing sometimes to settle on top of strategic resources such as iron or copper, despite the loss of hammers this entails.
    4.3 CITY GROWTH
    Larger cities with more citizens can work more tiles and contribute more commerce and production to your civilization; also, with more citizens contributing more production (―ammers‖, builds are faster.

    A food surplus is needed for city growth; the bigger the surplus, the faster the growth. However, the larger a city becomes, the slower it grows, because more food is required to reach the next growth point.

    Cities do not grow while they are producing either workers or settlers; all excess food goes into the unit rather than growing the population.

    The best aid to city growth is the granary. If a city has a granary, when it grows to its next population point, half of the food used to grow the city remains available and is used to grow the city to its next population size in turn.

    As cities grow, however, health and happiness will eventually become issues.
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    4.3.1 HEALTH
    If a city becomes unhealthy, some citizens are ―ick‖ and consume additional food. The city’s growth will slow, possibly even stagnating or starving as a result.

    Buildings that improve a city’s health: Granary, Aqueduct, Harbor, Grocer, Hospital, Recycling Centre.

    Some buildings, such as harbors and grocers, require specific resources to provide their health benefits.

    Resources that improve health throughout your Civ: cow, wheat, rice, corn, fish, pig, sheep, clam, crabs, deer. Note that each of these resources provides +1 health; having more than one of the same resource does not provide additional health. You should, therefore, trade excess resources to other civs to obtain those you don’t have.

    Leave some forest tiles unchopped (each 2 forest tiles in a city’s ―at cross‖= +1 health). This can be especially valuable if the city has floodplains, since they each contribute -0.4 health and unlike jungles, cannot be improved in this regard.

    Remove jungle tiles (-0.25 health each; required tech: Iron Working); underneath them are valuable grassland tiles.
    4.3.2 HAPPINESS
    Unhappiness is mainly caused by city size. The larger the city, the more unhappiness from overcrowding. (The difficulty level also affects this; the higher the difficulty level, the lower the population level at which citizens become unhappy.)
    Unhappiness obviously balances out city growth, described above. Unhappy citizens consume food without working a tile to grow any, making the city less productive and adversely affecting its growth.

    Cottages and commerce do not help to reduce unhappiness.


    Happiness Increasers:
    o Buildings such as temples, theatres, colosseums; other buildings such as markets and forges can also increase happiness provided certain resources are available.

    o State Religion (+1 happy citizen if the city contains your state religion)

    o Luxury resources (gold, silver, gems, fur, ivory, wine, silk, sugar, incense, spices, dye, hit musicals, hit singles, hit movies; +1 happy citizen from each)

    o Culture: increase the amount (%) of culture your civilization produces via the culture slider.

    o Units: a city with no defenders will have one or more unhappy citizens, depending upon its size.

    o Civics

    Representation (+3 happy citizens in your 5 largest cities)

    Hereditary Rule (+1 happy citizen from each military unit in the city)

    Environmentalism (+1 happy citizen for each forest or jungle within the city’s ―at cross‖. Note: in BtS, those tiles require forest preserves to produce happy citizens.)

    Emancipation (removes the +1 unhappy citizen for each Civ that has adopted it)

    Free Religion (+1 happy citizen for each religion in a city)


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    You can also deal with unhappiness by removing the unhappy citizens. The Slavery civic allows you to use population to finish buildings or units. This results in one or more unhappy citizens for 10 turns, but since you have removed unhappy citizens, this usually balances out.

    To avoid reaching the unhappiness threshold before you can accommodate it with one or more of the ―appiness increasers‖ use the city manager’s ―void Growth‖button—or simply change the tiles the city’s citizens are working so growth is ―tagnant‖
    4.4 COMMERCE
    Commerce is contributed to your civilization as a whole to be converted into one of three things: Wealth, Research, or Culture. (In BtS, Espionage is added as a fourth output.)


    Wealth is the amount of money (―old‖in the game) you have coming into your treasury. Ideally you want to have a surplus, not a deficit.

    Wealth is extremely useful; it can be used to upgrade military units from obsolete to up-to-date types while keeping their promotions intact; it can be used to purchase things from other civilizations, such as resources, technology, or even military alliances and actions; with the Universal Suffrage government civic, it can be used to rush production in your cities.

    However, the production of Wealth must be balanced against your need to allocate money to Research in order to advance technologically. At the start of the game, the commerce ―lider‖(the % adjuster, top left of the screen) allocates commerce toward either your treasury or to research of new technologies.

    Later, with the discovery of Drama, you gain a second slider, for Culture. This allows you to allocate commerce toward increasing culture in every city in your civilization. This has a number of effects, mainly increasing the happiness of your citizens and accelerating border expansion.
    From the very start of the game in BtS, you can convert commerce into Espionage. See Section 11: Espionage in this guide for more details.


    4.4.1 TRADE ROUTES
    Every city has a certain number of trade routes with other cities which bring in additional commerce. The trade routes and their income are visible in the upper left of the city screen, below the science/culture/espionage sliders.

    The game automatically creates and adjusts trade routes based upon current game conditions, some of which are described below. You cannot modify trade routes directly.

    Exploration of the map is important because you can only have trade routes with cities whose borders are visible to you (note that the city tile itself does not need to be visible).
    Trade routes require a corresponding physical route to another city. You can connect to other cities either by road (enabled by The Wheel) or water (river or coast, enabled by Sailing; or ocean, enabled by Astronomy).

    Open Borders agreements (enabled by Writing) are also required to enable foreign trade routes.


    Trade routes with foreign cities are more lucrative than domestic ones; likewise, overseas trade routes are more lucrative than continental trade routes. This is another reason why Astronomy is often such a game-changing and vital technology to discover, especially on maps with multiple continents separated by ocean tiles.
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    To take advantage of trade routes:
    o Early game:

    Research The Wheel, Sailing, and Writing.

    Once you have Writing, sign Open Borders agreements with your neighbours to enable foreign trade routes. This will also allow you to scout their territory.

    If Sailing is a low priority for you (for example, if all your cities are land-locked and you don’t have its prerequisite technology, Fishing), build roads to connect to other roads in neighbouring civs’ territory, or at least to connect to rivers that also run through their territory. With an Open Borders agreement in place, you can build roads in foreign territory, if needed. (Note: you do not need to connect every city directly; it’s enough to have a road and/or river route that connects you to each neighbour.)

    If you have or plan on having many coastal cities, build the Great Lighthouse world wonder, which adds an additional trade route in all those cities.

    Build the Temple of Artemis world wonder—preferably in a coastal city—which increases trade route income in that city.

    o Mid game:

    Research Currency, which adds another trade route to all your cities.

    Research Astronomy, which enables trade routes across ocean tiles.

    Build Harbors, which increase trade route income in coastal cities by 50%.

    Once you’ve researched Astronomy, strive to maintain good enough relations with the largest overseas civilizations so that they’ll sign Open Borders agreements with you.

    Avoid running the Mercantilism civic, especially once you discover Astronomy. Mercantilism only allows domestic trade routes to exist.

    If overseas civs are running Mercantilism, it may be necessary to trade Economics, Astronomy, and even Corporation to them to make international trade routes more lucrative and attractive than Mercantilism’s 1 free specialist per city. You can also use diplomacy to urge them to change civics, but they’ll rarely change from Mercantilism until they have most or all of the aforementioned techs.

    o Late game:

    Research Economics, then switch to the Free Market civic, which adds another trade route to all your cities.

    Economics also enables Custom Houses (BtS), which can be built to further increase trade route income in your coastal cities.

    Research Corporation, which adds another trade route to all your cities.

    Research Flight. This enables the Airport, which adds another trade route to each city where one is built.

    Research Mass Media and build the United Nations world wonder. Use the UN to pass the single currency (+1 trade route in all cities) and open borders resolutions.


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    4.5 SPECIALISTS
    You make a citizen into a specialist by removing the citizen from working one of the city’s tiles.
    There are six types of specialists: citizen, priest, artist, scientist, merchant, and engineer. (BtS adds a seventh specialist, the spy.)


    City specialists contribute two things to the city: bonus items and Great People points.

    Bonus items can be additional commerce, culture, production, or research, depending on the type of specialist, civics you’re running, and Wonders you own. These bonuses are multiplied by any buildings in their city that do so. So they help make your city more productive in a specific way. Adding scientists to a science city will make it produce more research points, for example.

    You have to be careful, though. If you remove a citizen from a tile with a town, for example, to make him into a scientist, you may find that the amount of research points produced by the city goes down, not up. This is because commerce gets converted into research, and a town provides a lot of commerce. Watch the results in the city screen carefully.
    Specialists (with the exception of citizen specialists) also contribute points toward generating Great People. This is described in more detail in Section 8: Great People, below.


    The downside of specialists is that they slow city growth (though if the city is close to its health or happiness limits, this may be a good thing). The city needs to produce extra food to support specialists, because the specialists consume it without contributing any.
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    Sidebar: Economic Systems
     
     
    There are two broadly-accepted economic systems for Civilization IV: the Cottage Economy (commonly abbreviated as CE) and the Specialist Economy (SE). I’m not going to cover them both in detail, just give you an overview so you know what the heck people are talking about.




    Cottage Economy
     
     
    Beginners should stick with this, the simpler of the two systems, at least until they move beyond Noble level. The CE involves improving tiles around most of your cities with cottages and then having your citizens work those cottages so they grow into hamlets, then villages, then towns; the revenue from them will increase as they grow.

    The CE is straightforward and requires relatively little micro-management other than going into the city screens now and then to ensure that your citizens are working a good amount of the tiles with cottages. In many ways Civilization IV was designed to run on the Cottage Economy, so it’s the best choice for beginners playing on the lower difficulty levels.

    (Running the CE makes certain technologies and civics extremely attractive. Pottery, Liberalism, Printing Press, and Democracy are priority technologies; you’ll also want to switch to the Free Speech and Emancipation civics soon after they’re available.)

    The main drawback to the CE is the length of time it takes to mature and become lucrative. In addition, the CE is extremely vulnerable to pillaging; dozens of turns of cottage growth can be undone in one turn by an enemy unit.

    The Cottage Economy works best with leaders who have the Financial trait, but it works well with any leader in the game.
    Specialist Economy
     
     
    The SE involves improving most tiles around most cities with farms rather than cottages. You then use the extra food to run specialists—mostly scientists and merchants. You can eventually reduce the science slider to 0% or close to it and derive the vast majority of your research and revenue from the specialists you run.
    The SE has several advantages over the CE. First off, cottages take time, a long time, to grow into towns, while specialists can give you comparable benefits to a town very early in the game. The SE is less vulnerable to pillaging than the CE. And the SE will also produce many more Great People, thanks to running all those specialists. A key tactic of the SE, in fact, is ―lightbulbing‖technologies with the many Great People generated and then trading those technologies with other civilizations.


    The big downside to the SE is the micromanagement that’s involved. You’ll need to check every city every turn and carefully adjust the specialists as needed; you’ll also need to constantly adjust the slider to suit your goals and capabilities. Also, the SE benefits most from playing as a Philosophical leader (to generate more Great People) and from building the Pyramids (to run Representation early, for the extra research points from each specialist). Experienced SE adherents maintain that the system works fine without these elements, but SE beginners will likely find the SE frustrating unless they’re in place.
    The bottom line: run the CE at least until you reach Prince level, then read up on the SE and give it a whirl. 16


    4.6 CITY SPECIALIZATION
    Have your cities specialized in producing certain things—food for growth and specialists, ―ammers‖for production, ―oins‖for commerce. This keeps the build list for each city focused and prioritized, ensuring you’re not inefficiently duplicating the same buildings everywhere. It also aids in better city location selection. Furthermore, the game’s Artificial Intelligence (AI) that runs all the rival civs is not programmed to specialize cities properly, therefore doing so gives you an advantage over your computer opponents.

    City specialization is partly determined by terrain and resources; however, tile improvements also play a factor. With the variety of tile improvements available in Civ IV, the potential exists to convert almost any mixture of terrain to any type of city. A city with several ―lat‖riverside tiles, for example, could be improved with watermills and workshops to become a production city, with cottages to become a commerce city, or with farms to become a GP farm. The point is to decide on the specialization and then follow through with the optimal builds and tile improvements for that city type.
    4.6.1 COMMERCE CITY
    Because commerce is converted into either wealth or research (and, later, culture; in BtS, espionage), a city that produces a large amount of commerce can further specialize into one of two city specialization sub-categories: science or wealth, which are explained below.
    High-priority builds: banks, markets, grocers; also libraries, monasteries, universities, observatories, laboratories. A city that produces a great deal of commerce will benefit from both the science-multiplying and the commerce-multiplying buildings.

    Low-priority builds: factory, barracks, drydock—anything that does not increase population or commerce output.

    Tiles: Grasslands, Flood Plains, tiles with fresh water for food and commerce (riverside tiles especially)

    Tile Improvements: cottages and farms—a balanced mix for commerce and growth

    Resources: those with high commerce yields (gold, silver, gems, silk, fur, incense, dye; also spices, sugar, marble, whale, wine)


    Happiness and health multiplying buildings (markets, temples, theatres, colloseums; grocers, granaries, harbors, supermarkets, etc.) are also important as they allow you to grow the city larger which in turn allows you to have more citizens working cottage tiles. Fortunately, some of these (the harbor, market, and grocer in particular) increase revenue as well as health and/or happiness; prioritize them in your commerce cities over health-only buildings such as aqueducts.
    4.6.1.1 Science City
     
     
    High-priority builds: library, observatory, university, laboratory, monastery

    Wonders: Great Library, Oxford University


    Academy special building (requires a Great Scientist to build it)

    Use surplus food to support Science Specialists, who contribute 3 research points (commonly called ―eakers‖or ―lasks‖ each, rather than having citizens work unproductive tiles
    17
    4.6.1.2 Wealth City
     
     
    High-priority builds: religious shrine, market, grocer, bank, airport; harbor (and customs house in BtS) if coastal

    Wonders: Wall Street


    A holy city (where a religion is founded, and where a Great Prophet can be used to build that religion’s shrine) is usually the best candidate for the Wealth City, because every city—domestic or foreign—with that religion contributes 1 gold to the city per turn once the shrine has been built.

    In BtS, this is also the city where you should found corporations.
    4.6.2 PRODUCTION CITY
    High-priority builds: forge, factory, power source (hydro plant, coal plant, nuclear plant); in BtS, industrial park, levee.

    Low-priority builds: library, university, observatory, bank—anything that does not increase population or production output.

    Tiles: Hills, Forest; plains on rivers

    Tile Improvements: mine, workshop, lumbermill, watermill; also, build just enough farms so citizens can work the production tiles and still have the city grow.

    Resources: Those with high hammer yields: mined (iron, copper, coal) and/or quarried (marble, stone); also horses and cows. However, try to include some food-producing tiles in the fat cross as well, otherwise the city will not have enough food to grow and have citizens working the production tiles.

    Wonders: Ironworks

    You will also very likely need to offset the unhealthiness caused by all these production-boosting buildings, so a granary, aqueduct, grocer, supermarket, hospital, recycling center, and (in BtS) public transit will also be needed. Although the Ironworks is usually not available until well past the mid-point of the game, it’s a wise idea to decide on the location of this city early and pre-load it with as many of these health-boosting buildings as you can.


    This city will also likely need several happiness-increasing buildings such as markets and temples, just because you want the city to grow as large as possible in order to work as many tiles as possible.
    BtS: DO NOT build the National Park in this city, as it cuts off access to coal, which boosts production of a coal plant or the Ironworks.


    4.6.3 MILITARY CITY
    Follow the same principles as for the production city, but also:
    High-priority builds: barracks, drydock (if coastal), stable (Warlords/BtS), airport

    Wonders: Heroic Epic, West Point, Red Cross. Since you can only build two national wonders per city, you will need to combine these carefully. Because West Point is an expensive build, I prefer to not build it in the Heroic Epic city; I prefer to have the HE city producing units, not building a national wonder.


    Located centrally (reduces need for culture or maintenance buildings); if the city is coastal, it can produce naval units as well as land units.
    18
    Can double as a production city if necessary, especially for Wonder-building. In fact, many of the points listed above for the production city also apply to the military city. However, try to keep this city devoted to military unit production as much as possible. This is why I don’t usually combine the Ironworks with either the Heroic Epic or West Point; my Ironworks city usually becomes a late-game wonder factory, precluding military builds for many turns.

    Even if you’re planning on playing a peaceful game, it’s a very good idea to establish your HE city as early as possible. Make it one of the first cities you found and build a granary, forge, courthouse, barracks, and the Heroic Epic there (include a lighthouse if it’s coastal and has seafood). After that, the city should produce units non-stop except when it grows large enough to need buildings such as a market, grocer, and so on to assist with happiness and health, or when military/production enhancers like stables, drydocks, and factories become available. When the HE city is not building units, another city should take over that role. With a HE city constantly pumping units you should be able to maintain a respectful power rating.

    If you are playing a military game, you will need more than one military-focused city.
    Warlords/BtS addendum: You should also consider using Great Generals in this city, either as Military Instructors who add 2 XPs to every unit built there, and/or to build a Military Academy (requires Education; in BtS, Military Science) which makes military builds 50% faster.


    4.6.4 GREAT PERSON FARM
    Tiles: grassland, fresh water (lake, river, oasis), flood plains

    Tile Improvements: pasture, farm, fishing boats—you want extra food so you can make more citizens into specialists and gain more GP points per turn

    Resources: those with high food yields (corn, wheat, deer, pigs, sheep, banana, rice, cow, crabs, fish, clams, sugar)

    Wonders: Parthenon, National Epic (Note: the Parthenon does not have to be built in this city, but the National Epic does). Also, if appropriate, the Globe Theatre—this will allow you to produce Great Artists to help achieve a cultural victory.


    Most Wonders will also contribute GP points. You may want to try building some Wonders here, which would require some production tiles and/or improvements. Since this city will have very few hills, that will mean chopping nearby forests, and building some watermills and/or workshops instead of farms to make the grasslands productive.

    However, remember that each wonder contributes GP points toward a specific type of Great Person. If you are trying to produce a specific Great Person, having multiple wonders contributing different GP points can yield unpredictable results. Pick and choose the wonders you build in your GP farm very carefully.
    In BtS, the new National Park national wonder will not only alleviate health problems in this city, it will also give you one free specialist for every forest preserve. This means you’ll want to plan the city carefully, preserving many of the forests and/or jungles in its fat cross. Remember that the National Park also removes access to coal from the city, so that will impact production if the city contains the Ironworks or a coal plant.


    Maximize the number of specialists – choose them based on type of great person desired; each adds 3 GP points/turn toward that GP type (e.g. scientists for a Great Scientist, etc.)
    19
    5. MILITARY
     
    5.1 GENERAL
    ―n times of peace, prepare for war‖ balance building improvements with building your military.

    The AI civs will attack if they perceive you to be weak (few units and/or outdated ones), especially in border or coastal cities. Check the power graph regularly to see how you rate compared to your rivals.

    Many beginners prefer to play peacefully, only fighting defensive wars. While you can win this way, you can often win much more handily by playing more aggressively. First, this requires you to build more units, which keeps your power rating higher and should mean that the AI is less likely to declare war on you. Second, land is power. More land means more cities, which are the engines of your civilization, allowing you to produce more units, science, commerce, etc. than your rivals. Third, more land also means you own more resources to benefit your civilization directly or through trade. And finally, war will either weaken or eliminate a rival who might have otherwise presented a threat to you. In other words, while Civilization isn’t just a warmongering game, warmongers and empire-builders tend to do better.

    In addition, the AI does not manage warfare very well, so waging war, like city specialization, gives you an advantage over your computer-driven opponents.

    During a war, you will lose units. Don’t stop building them.
    Don’t neglect building siege units like catapults, trebuchets (Warlords/BtS), cannon, artillery, etc. They’re crucial for reducing or eliminating city defenses and for damaging large stacks of units through collateral damage, even if they’re sacrificed in the process.


    Focus the bulk of your best forces in border and coastal cities. Interior cities not easily reached by foreign military units can usually be left defended by a single, obsolete unit just to placate its citizens.

    Be aware of your Civ’s Unique Unit (UU) and plan your campaigns to take advantage of them. Bee-line to the tech required for the UU, then build and/or upgrade several and go on campaign immediately.

    With the attacking unit selected, hold down the ALT key and hover the mouse pointer over the enemy’s defending unit to see your odds of winning, which are displayed at lower left.

    The AI’s military objectives and tactics are somewhat predictable depending on the situation. If you capture an enemy city, the AI tends to throw everything at your forces in that city to take it back. But if the AI is the attacker, it will usually stop to pillage tile improvements—this can give you valuable time to build, whip, or upgrade units, and/or send in reinforcements.

    You can also draw enemy units into your territory by using a Worker as bait.

    It’s easier to sink a transport ship than to defeat the forces it’s carrying. Keep at least a couple of attack ships patrolling your coast when you’re at war.

    Forts are pretty much useless. They may even reduce the defensive boost of a square (building one on a forested tile will remove the forest and reduce its +50% defense bonus by half, to a +25% bonus; this is fixed in Warlords). They may also be used by the enemy, making them worse than useless.
    o BtS addendum: The expansion pack has improved forts. They now preserve the underlying terrain (including forests). In addition, forts can now be used by ships. You can chain up to two of them together (or combine one with city and/or lake tiles) to create a canal, providing ships with a shortcut.


    20
    Caravels and Submarines do not require open borders agreements to enter other Civs’ territory, but can only carry scout, explorer, missionary, spy, or great person units. They also can unload spies and great merchants in the territory of civs with whom you do not have an open borders agreement.

    Besides capturing cities, consider destroying tile improvements. Even if you lose the war, the enemy’s economy is a shambles, and pillaging earns you gold.

    In addition, if you capture a city but its surrounding tile improvements don’t support the specialization you intend for it, pillage those improvements before the city revolt ends. This will earn you some gold you’d otherwise forgo by simply having your workers ―ulldoze‖over each tile improvement.

    If you intend to capture cities, be sure to bring along enough defensive units to hold them.
    5.2 PROMOTIONS
    The only way to build an elite military is to give them experience, and thereby earn promotions.
    You are rewarded for taking risks: The lower the odds a unit has of winning a fight, the more experience points (XPs) it earns if it survives and wins. (The exception to this is siege weapons in BtS as of the 3.17 patch; siege weapons only get 1 XP per victory, no matter how long the odds against their survival may have been.) The downside, of course, is that you run a higher risk of losing the unit.


    Fighting barbarians can be useful for early promotions, but remember that the promotion level available from combat with barbarians has a limit, unlike that available from fighting other Civs. (The limits are 5 XPs maximum from fighting animals, 10 XPs max. from barbarian military units.)
    Before attacking, strategically select your units to maximize not only victory, but promotions as well. Remember you need a Level 4 unit (3 promotions) to build the Heroic Epic, and a Level 5 unit (4 promotions) to build West Point (Note: West Point requires a Level 6 unit in Warlords/BtS). If you have only one or two units near the required levels, reserve them for battles they’re certain to win.


    You may want to leave units ―npromoted‖until you have a better idea which promotion may be most needed. Promotions do not expire over time. Granting a promotion also helps heal damage.
    Upgrading an obsolete unit to a more advanced one preserves all its promotions, however its XP level drops back down to 10. The only exception to this is if the unit has been combined with a Great General (Warlords/BtS); in that case, upgrades are free and all XPs are preserved during an upgrade.


    5.3 EARLY GAME
    Four siege units with the Accuracy promotion can eliminate a city’s defense bonus in a single turn. (In Warlords/BtS, however, be warned that walls and castles are more resistant to bombardment).


    Declaring war gives you a chance to steal workers, which slows down your opponents’ development and enhances your own.

    In very early wars, it’s usually better to raze any captured city of dubious location and/or value to keep your maintenance costs low.

    Capitals, holy cities, and cities containing wonders are almost always worth keeping.

    The AI often founds cities in less than ideal spots (such as 1 tile from the coast). Unless the city belongs to one of the categories listed in the point above, raze it and found a new city in a better spot nearby.

    If you raze a city with a World Wonder, the Wonder and its beneficial effects are lost forever. (National Wonders are always destroyed when a city is captured, but can be rebuilt.)
    21
    5.4 MID/LATE GAME
    To build up an army, go into total war mode:
    o Civics: Universal Suffrage (to rush-buy units) or Police State (especially if war weariness will be a problem); Vassalage and Theocracy (for the additional ―xperience Points‖(XPs) for each unit when built). Nationhood is also useful for drafting and for fighting war weariness.

    o Treasury: Set research to 0% temporarily; use the extra gold to rush-buy and/or upgrade units, and/or to bribe other Civs to also declare war. In BtS, you may also want to push up the espionage slider and then collect espionage points versus your intended enemy.

    o Buildings: Build barracks in all cities for the additional initial XPs (and drydocks for naval units). Aside from that, build mostly military units until the war is over.


    Bribe other Civs to go to war with each other before you do, weakening them and/or drawing forces away from where you intend to attack.
    Capturing cities: Use siege, naval, and/or air units to eliminate a city’s defensive bonus; then use siege or air units to soften up the defending units before sending your ground units in to take the city.


    Use spies to destroy enemy oil wells and uranium mines, eliminating your opponents’ ability to create the strong units (tanks, air, ships) that need those resources. Once you have air units and are at war, planes can also destroy these improvements through air raids.

    A spy in a sub can sabotage offshore improvements without starting a war.

    After taking a city, hurry cultural improvements (theatre, library, temples, university) to push the borders back out. Or have a Great Artist build a Great Work, which also stops rebellion immediately.

    SAM infantry can damage or even shoot down air units. However, each SAM unit only gets one chance to do this per turn unless it is the direct target of an air attack. To mitigate their effectiveness, attack first with cheaper and less effective fighters and let them absorb any SAM damage. Then attack with your more expensive and powerful bombers.
    5.5 WAR WEARINESS
    As a war drags on, more citizens in your cities will become unhappy because of it. This is ―ar weariness‖ (When you hover the mouse pointer over the city screen’s happiness/unhappiness indicator, war weariness is listed as ―ar! Huh! What is it good for?‖

    War weariness accumulates primarily from the loss of your own units, killing enemy units, and capturing cities. As these events occur, you can expect war weariness in your cities to increase.
    War weariness does not accumulate if you kill enemy units and/or lose your own units within your own cultural borders, so it can be worthwhile to entice the enemy’s stack of units into your territory and then kill them there.

    You can decrease war weariness the same way you deal with unhappiness in general (see section 4.3.2 Happiness, above), and with some additional strategies:

    o Civics:

    Police State reduces war weariness by 50% in all cities

    Nationhood gives you 2 additional happy citizens in all cities with barracks


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    o Wonders:

    Mount Rushmore reduces war weariness by 25% in all cities

    The Statue of Zeus (BtS) increases war weariness in all civs at war with the civ that owns it by 100%. Either build it yourself or capture it very early in a war with its owner. Capturing or destroying the Statue of Zeus will eliminate the increased war weariness for which it was responsible.

    o Buildings:

    A Jail reduces war weariness by 25% in the city where it is built. (Do the math: Police State + Mount Rushmore + a Jail means zero war weariness; in the modern era you could, potentially, war indefinitely thanks to this combination!)

    o Diplomacy:

    War weariness will disappear if you conquer your enemy completely (capture or raze all their cities). It will also disappear if you sign a peace treaty. However, if you soon afterwards go to war with that same enemy (especially if you do so once a 10-turn treaty expires), the war weariness will immediately rise to its previous level.

    If you capture an enemy city, some citizens in that city may remain unhappy because they ―earn to rejoin their motherland‖ This unhappiness will gradually disappear over time as your culture ―ssimilates‖the city’s population. It will vanish completely if you eliminate the enemy Civ.

    War weariness is kept at different levels for different enemies; if you switch opponents by making peace with one and declaring war on another, this will reduce but not eliminate the war weariness in your cities.


    5.6 THE CIRCUMNAVIGATION BONUS
    Being first to circumnavigate the globe earns all your ships +1 movement per turn for the rest of the game.
    o Note that circumnavigation does not require making a linked circle; separate paths that, combined, have opened tiles in a complete East-West route also count.

    o The best strategy to earn this: research Optics, build two Caravels, and send them off in opposite directions. This is also an excellent way to encounter all other Civs on the map.

    o On map types such as archipelago that feature numerous linked islands, it may be possible to circumnavigate the globe using boats that cannot venture into ocean tiles: galleys, triremes (Warlords/BtS), even work boats!

    o You can also earn the circumnavigation bonus by obtaining other Civs’ world maps that, combined, reveal tiles in the above manner. Without even building a ship!

    o The circumnavigation bonus is less important, perhaps even useless, on Pangaea maps; valuable on Continents maps; and invaluable on Archipelago maps, where strong (and fast!) navies are often crucial to success.


    23
    6. WONDERS
     
     
    Unlike older versions of Civilization, Wonders are not as crucial to winning strategies in Civilization IV. Avoid ―onder Addiction‖– building Wonders that provide little benefit, or that become obsolete quickly, instead of building more valuable buildings and units. Every wonder costs production points (―ammers‖ that could, arguably, go toward something more mundane but more valuable.

    You should also note that as you rise through the difficulty levels, competition with the AI for wonders becomes more and more fierce. One of the best things you can do when moving up a difficulty level is to voluntarily forgo building a wonder or two—perhaps even several.

    Wonders can, however, still be helpful. Here is a list of the most useful Wonders; I haven’t attempted to cover all the wonders, just the ones that stand out in the game for one reason or another. Just don’t beat yourself up if another Civ beats you to one of these (and remember that every Civ gets to build the National Wonders).
    6.1 BEST WONDERS
    The following is a list of the best wonders that are usually worth pursuing in most games and can form a key part of your overall strategy.
    6.1.1 BEST WORLD WONDERS



    Stonehenge
     
     
    Stonehenge gives you a free monument in every city, which means you don’t have to build them yourself or use missionaries to have new cities expand their borders. This is a big savings in both time and hammers. Stonehenge also contributes points toward a Great Prophet, which can be very useful for ―ightbulbing‖early technologies or for building shrines in holy cities.

    However, if you’re playing as a Creative leader, Stonehenge is mostly unnecessary since your cities’ borders will expand automatically anyway.
    Pyramids
     
     
    The most expensive early game wonder, the Pyramids open up access to all government civics long before they become available normally. The main advantage is the ability to run the Representation civic early, for its boost to both happiness (+3 happy citizens in your five largest cities) and to research (+3 flasks from each specialist). Representation is especially powerful when combined with a leader who has the Philosophical trait, since you’ll likely run several specialists to take advantage of the civic and therefore produce great people much faster. And finally, the Pyramids contribute great person points toward a great engineer—one of the most valuable great people in the game, and, not surprisingly, one of the hardest to produce.

    Downside: the Pyramids are extremely expensive. Building them may mean you neglect other, vital builds. It’s best to only attempt them if you have access to stone, which accelerates the wonder’s build time.
    Great Wall (Warlords/BtS)
     
     
    The Great Wall keeps all land-based barbarians out of your territory. This saves you a lot of headaches dealing with barbs, who become a bigger pain for neighboring civs, since all the barbs that would have attacked you go after your neighbors instead. This may buy you valuable time to find a strategic resource, or concentrate on some non-military builds. You also get double the points toward a Great General when you fight battles within your own borders. 24

    In Warlords, the Great Wall contributes GP points toward a Great Engineer. You may even produce one in time to have him build the Pyramids for you. In BtS, the wonder contributes GP points toward a Great Spy. As a result, the wonder becomes part of a new strategy: build the Great Wall, get the Great Spy, and use him on an infiltration mission in one of your most advanced neighbor’s cities. Then send spies to steal technologies from that neighbor.


    The only real downside to the Great Wall (besides the usual diversion of hammers) is missing out on the relatively easy XPs that are available from fighting barbs within your territory.
    Oracle
     
     
    The Oracle gives you a free technology. Code of Laws and Metal Casting tend to be two of the most common free techs picked from the wonder. Either one can give you a huge early advantage.

    The main problem is that the Oracle requires you to research several technologies (Mysticism, Polytheism or Meditation, and Priesthood) that will give you marginal benefits in the early game, especially compared to the worker techs. If you don’t start with Mysticism and if you don’t have access to marble, it may not be worth your while.
    Great Library
     
     
    In many players’ estimation (including mine), this is the best wonder in the game. It gives you two free scientists in the city where you build it until Scientific Method makes it obsolete. The scientists will not only help your research in the early game; together with the wonder itself, they will accelerate the production of Great Scientists, possibly the best great person in the game, especially if you run additional scientist specialists. Unlike many other wonders, it’s beneficial regardless of map conditions.

    Great Scientists will lightbulb technologies along the path to Liberalism (Philosophy, Paper, Education) provided you have the right pre-requisite technologies; so you could use the wonder to power your path to Liberalism and its free technology while researching other technologies on your own.
    The downside? It is rather expensive, especially if you don’t have marble. In BtS, an additional pre-requisite technology, Aesthetics, was introduced, making the path to its enabling tech (Literature) more of a costly diversion. (However, the AI does not prioritize Aesthetics, making it a good trading tech.)




    Cristo Redentor (BtS)
     
     
    This late game wonder bestows no anarchy for civics changes, which is huge if you’re playing as a non-spiritual leader, especially in the late game when all the civics are available. It also reduces the wait between civics changes to 1 turn (3.13 patch and later). Strangely, leaders with the Spiritual trait, who need it less, build it faster. Go figure.


    6.1.2 BEST NATIONAL WONDERS
    Always remember that you can only build two national wonders in a city. Choose their locations carefully and make sure that if you build more than one in a city, that they’ll have good synergy together. The following are the best national wonders; you should almost always build these, and therefore plan their locations carefully.




    Heroic Epic
     
     
    The Heroic Epic accelerates the production of military units by 100%. Build this in your military city, but remember that to take advantage of it, you need to keep that city producing units almost constantly. Only indulge in non-military builds when absolutely necessary. Also, try to build this in a coastal city so it will accelerate the production of both land and naval units. 25

    Other national wonders with good synergy are West Point or the Red Cross.




    National Epic
     
     
    The National Epic should be built in the city that will be your Great Person Farm, to accelerate the production of great people. In BtS, it combines well with the National Park.




    Oxford University
     
     
    Oxford should be built in your top science city. It combines well with the Great Library world wonder, and with the National Epic if you mostly want to produce Great Scientists.




    Ironworks
     
     
    The Ironworks goes in your best production city. You may want to combine it with one of the military national wonders (Heroic Epic or West Point) if you’re pursuing a military victory (conquest or domination). Otherwise, the Ironworks city tends to be a late game world wonder factory.




    Wall Street
     
     
    Wall Street multiplies commerce by 100%, so this national wonder should be built in your best commerce city. It combines best with a religious shrine, as it will multiply shrine income. In BtS, you should also found any and all corporations here, to multiply their income as well.




    West Point
     
     
    West Point is essentially a super-barracks, adding another 4 XPs to every unit built in the city. It combines well with other military national wonders such as Heroic Epic or the Red Cross. Remember that you need to have had a unit promoted to level 6 in order to build it.




    Moai Statues (BtS)
     
     
    The Moai Statues make one coastal city more productive by adding one hammer per water tile. Ideally this should be built in a city with several coastal tiles so that there is a modest financial benefit as well. It is usually used to make a marginal city surrounded by several water tile into a much more useful and productive city. It combines well with the Colossus (which doesn’t have to be built in the same city).
    6.2 GOOD WONDERS
    Not all wonders are created equal. While these wonders are useful, don’t beat yourself up if you miss out on them (or, in the case of the National Wonders, never get around to building them). Often, their worth is situational.
    6.2.1 GOOD WORLD WONDERS



    Great Lighthouse
     
     
    If the map conditions are right, the Great Lighthouse can be a huge boost to your early economy. The map conditions are (a) all or mostly all of your early and mid-game cities will be coastal, and (b) there are several other civilizations with whom you will have early trade routes (i.e. they’re close enough to be reached by road (The Wheel) or coast (Sailing) and you’ll have sufficiently friendly diplomatic relations with them to ensure that they’ll form and keep Open Borders agreements with you). If you’re isolated, or if you only have one recalcitrant neighbor who won’t open borders with you and whom you plan to eliminate ASAP (cough cough Tokugawa cough cough), it won’t be worthwhile. Also remember that the GLH is one of the few wonders that is not accelerated by possessing a certain resource. 26




    Statue of Zeus (BtS)
     
     
    The Statue of Zeus increases war weariness in your enemies by 100%. This wonder is attractive mainly because it’s one you don’t want the AI to have. Alternatively, however, you could simply discover where the S of Z is located and then capture that city very early in the war. Or simply avoid going to war with its owner.
    Mausoleum of Maussollos (BtS)
     
     
    This wonder extends golden ages by 50%. Since golden ages have been improved considerably in BtS, this wonder can be very worthwhile. However, it means you’ll need to run several golden ages to take full advantage of it. Plan on making Nationalism a high priority so you can build the Taj Mahal, as well as producing several great people and using them for golden ages, otherwise you’re not getting your hammers’ worth from the M of M. Because the great people requirement increases by one for each successive golden age, this wonder is probably best when built by a leader with the Philosophical trait.




    Spiral Minaret and University of Sankore (Warlords/BtS)
     
     
    These wonders make every religious building (temples, monasteries, ―athedrals‖ and shrines) contribute +2 gold (for the Spiral Minaret) and +2 research (U. of Sankore). Obviously, the benefits of these wonders are situational. If you have built or plan on building several religious buildings, then they can be worthwhile. Both wonders have their builds accelerated by stone, so they’re consistent in that regard. They tend to be more beneficial when playing as a Spiritual leader in order to leverage the cheap temples.

    Remember, however, that two things will render these wonders obsolete: changing to Free Religion or discovering Computers. Also, the wonder-enhanced benefits from monasteries expire when those buildings do, when you discover Scientific Method. If you need to pursue any of these options quickly in the game, the utility of these two wonders will be limited.
    Apostolic Palace (BtS)
     
     
    Like the Spiral Minaret and the University of Sankore, the Apostolic Palace is most beneficial if you’re playing a religious game. More than those other two religious wonders, however, you benefit the most from the AP by spreading your state religion to other civilizations. The AP will allow you to propose UN-like diplomatic resolutions long before the UN comes around, and will even allow you to potentially win an early diplomatic victory. The AP also makes every religious building for its faith (in every civ) contribute +2 hammers, which is cool.

    The early diplomatic win is, however, regarded as ―heesy‖by most players. In addition, the AP is one of the few wonders (like the UN) from which the same benefits are gained even if you don’t build it. You could let another civilization build the AP, then become its resident by spreading your empire and the AP religion enough so you have enough votes to become the AP resident, or at least control the results of AP voting.




    Taj Mahal
     
     
    The Taj Mahal results in a golden age, which increases your production and commerce for a few turns (in BtS, golden ages have several other benefits, including increased great person production and anarchy-free civics changes). A golden age can be nice, but they’re rarely essential; you have to have a reasonably large, well-developed empire with populous cities to really benefit from them. Nevertheless, as with all wonders, another benefit is keeping it out of the hands of the AI.




    Statue of Liberty
     
     
    Some may argue that the Statue of Liberty belongs in the ―est Wonders‖category. Build it and you get one free specialist in all cities on the same continent. That’s helpful, but not game-breaking (or game-winning). Remember 27

    that it only affects cities on the same continent, so its effects are mitigated by the map. On a tiny islands map, for example, it’s not really worth the trouble.




    Pentagon
     
     
    This is a very situational wonder. It grants +2 XPs to all units built in all of your cities. If you’re pursuing a conquest or domination win, you will probably consider this wonder extremely valuable and pursue it eagerly. However, if you’re pursuing a more peaceful victory condition (space race, culture, diplomatic, or even time) then you can give it a pass; remember that if all you’re doing is trying to deter an attack, XPs and promotions do not count toward your power rating.




    Three Gorges Dam
     
     
    The Three Gorges Dam contributes power to all cities on its continent, increasing production in all of them and eliminating the need to build power plants. Note that: if you miss out on it, you can still achieve its effects in an alternate manner, by building Hydro, Coal, or Nuclear Power Plants. And these plants are available earlier than the TGD, so you may not want to wait. In addition, in BtS, power contributes +2 unhealthiness to a city. Finally, as with the Statue of Liberty, its effects are limited to one continent, so its worth is affected by the map.


    6.2.2 GOOD NATIONAL WONDERS



    Globe Theatre
     
     
    The Globe results in no unhappiness in the city where it’s built. It’s great when combined with the Slavery and/or the Nationalism civics; you can whip or draft out of this city to your heart’s content without ever worrying about unhappiness. The Globe can also be useful for cultural victories, not only for the culture in creates, but mainly for the large number of artist specialists it will allow you to run.
    National Park (BtS)
     
     
    The National Park essentially removes health problems from a city and allows you to run one free specialist for every forest preserve in the city’s fat cross. It combines well with the National Epic, but not with the Ironworks because it removes access to coal and therefore reduces production in the city where it’s built. Note that you should ideally plan its location early in the game, otherwise you may find yourself lacking a city with jungle or forest for the free specialists.


    6.3 DUBIOUS WONDERS
    Some wonders just aren’t worth the trouble of building them. Most are beneficial, even if only at a mediocre level, but there are a couple that are duds.
    Chichen Itza
     
     
    This wonder increases the cultural defenses of all your cities. However, sitting back in your cities and waiting for the AI to attack the defenders within is not wise; the AI will pillage you back to the stone age. You need to engage in active defense, attacking out of your cities, which renders this wonder useless to you. Its only real benefit is keeping it out of the hands of the AI so you’re not faced with several turns of whittling away their cities’ cultural defenses with siege units.
    Hagia Sophia
     
     
    I used to really like this wonder, but I’ve realized that it’s not that great a value. Its effect—accelerated worker productivity—can be achieved either through a civics change (to Serfdom), or by simply building (or capturing) more workers and teaming them. Its main benefit is the points it contributes toward a Great Engineer. Meh. 28




    7. CULTURE
     
    7.1 GENERAL
    Culture is what pushes out your borders. A city needs to produce culture to expand the area it controls. If the city is producing no culture, its boundaries will not grow beyond the 8 tiles immediately surrounding the city tile.

    As ―ulture points‖accumulate, they expand the city boundaries at the following milestones (normal speed): 10 (this grows the boundary to the city’s workable ―at cross‖of 21 tiles); 100; 500; 5,000; 50,000 (―egendary‖culture)

    Culture also improves a city’s defenses—this is the % defense bonus listed by the city name.

    In addition, enemy military units cannot use roads within your cultural boundaries, so culture, effectively, slows them down.
    Buildings that produce culture: Obelisks (―onuments‖in Warlords/BTS), Temples, Libraries, Universities, Theatres, Monasteries, Castles, Academies.


    Buildings that magnify culture (increase it by a certain %): ―athedrals‖(each religion has one with a different name, but they all increase culture by 50%), Broadcast Towers, the Hermitage.

    The Artist city specialist also produces additional culture points.

    Some Civics will increase culture, directly or indirectly:
    o Free Speech will increase culture by 100% in every city.

    o Caste System allows unlimited merchant, scientist, or artist specialists in each city. Artist specialists produce culture.

    o Mercantilism gives you one free specialist per city, which, again, you can designate as a culture-producing artist.


    Most of the National and World Wonders either produce or magnify culture.

    All of the Religious Wonders (Shrines) produce 4 culture points.

    Your state religion in a city produces one culture point, 5 if it is a ―oly city‖where the religion was founded. Under the Free Religion or Paganism civics, all religions in a city produce one culture point.

    If you are playing as a leader with the Creative trait, all your cities produce an extra 2 culture points.

    Having a Great Artist build a Great Work in a city contributes 4,000 culture points to that city.

    You can win a game based on culture, by having three cities producing Legendary culture (50,000 culture points and above, normal speed).

    A city that is swamped by foreign culture can go into revolt. If two revolts occur, the city will ―lip‖to the civilization with the stronger cultural influence on the city tile. To prevent this, stack military units in the city until the ―hance of revolt‖(a % visible by hovering the mouse pointer over the culture bar at lower left in the city screen) is 0%. This number will go down over time as you increase the city’s cultural output.

    You can also use culture to ―lip‖a foreign city, but this will often require a high amount of cultural output from your nearest cities.
    29
    7.2 EARLY GAME
    Growing the boundaries of a city can be crucial in the early game in order to access all nearby resources, seal off territory, etc.
    The earliest available cultural improvement, and one of the cheapest, is the Obelisk (pre-requisite tech: Mysticism; cost to build: 30 hammers. Renamed the Monument in Warlords/BtS). Consider building these to grow your boundaries if your cities are producing no culture. Be warned that they become obsolete quickly (with the discovery of Calendar). In BtS, however, their lifespan is extended considerably, as they expire with Astronomy.

    The Stonehenge World Wonder’s effects are that of an Obelisk/Monument in every city. You may want to build this Wonder instead of Obelisks/Monuments. You will likely need to ―hop‖to beat the AI Civs to it (i.e. cut down forests near the city building it). Like Obelisks, though, it becomes obsolete quickly—with the discovery of Calendar (Astronomy in BtS).


    Obelisks/Monuments and Stonehenge are not necessary if you are playing as a leader with the Creative trait, as your cities automatically produce 2 culture points per turn immediately—the equivalent of two Obelisks/Monuments. You would be better off focusing your efforts on other improvements and Wonders.

    Once you have a religion in one of your cities, you can build a Monastery there (or run the Organized Religion civic) and then build Missionaries to spread that religion. A significant advantage of using religion to provide culture to a new city over a monument is that the missionary is built in one of your established cities. This way your new, low-production city can get on with other, more useful builds as soon as it’s founded, such as granaries.
    7.3 MID GAME
    All buildings that produce culture will produce double their amount of original culture after 1000 years of game time have passed since they were built. This doubling effect only occurs once per building.

    Once you have researched Code of Laws and switched to the Caste System civic, you can run an Artist specialist in any city, even a brand new one, to contribute +4 culture per turn and expand the city’s boundaries quickly.

    After you research Music, you can ―uild‖culture in a city to expand its borders.
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    8. GREAT PEOPLE
     
    8.1 PRODUCTION
    Great People (GP) are generated by the accumulation of ―reat Person Points‖(GPP) in a city.

    The amount of GPP required for each Great Person increases with each subsequent Great Person.

    Two things produce GPP in a city:
    o Specialists: Running specialists will contribute 2 GPP per turn toward a Great Person of a matching type (priest specialists will contribute GPP toward a Great Prophet, for example).

    o Wonders: Both World and National Wonders will contribute GPP each turn. Check the Civilopedia to see what type of GPP each produces.


    To ensure you generate a Great Person of a specific type, ensure that the GPP produced in a city are ―ure‖that is, only build wonders and run specialists in a city that all produce GPP toward the same type of Great Person. For example, build Stonehenge, the Oracle, and run priest specialists in a city to ensure you generate a Great Prophet there. In another city, build the Great Library and Oxford University and run scientists in order to produce a Great Scientist.
    The National Epic national wonder increases the production of GPP in the city where it’s built by 100%. This should be built in your GP Farm (see Section 4.6.4 Great Person Farm, above). This will likely mean that the vast majority of your Great People come from this city. The National Epic also contributes GPP toward a Great Artist, so you may produce one of those sometimes rather than the Great Person you were aiming to generate.

    Warlords/BtS Addendum: The Warlords expansion pack introduced a new type of Great Person, the Great General. Unlike other Great People, however, this Great Person is not produced via wonders and specialists, but by accumulating military XPs from fighting other civilizations.


    8.2 USES
    ―erging‖or ―ettling‖involves making a Great Person into super-specialist in a city. They will then contribute culture, research, gold, food, production, or some combination of two or more of these for the rest of the game. Doing this with a Great Prophet or Great Merchant, for example, can provide a substantial amount of gold per turn (GPT).

    All Great People can also be used to discover or help research some technologies, called ―ightbulbing‖. This can provide a ―lingshot effect‖similar to building the Oracle. Check to see what technology a Great Person will ―lightbulb‖before using them for another purpose. If obtaining the technology early will give you a significant advantage that fits in with your strategy, you should consider using the Great Person for that purpose.
    In BtS, a new use for great people is founding corporations. See Section 12: Corporations for details.


    Don’t feel you have to use a Great Person right away. You can keep them around and use them strategically—Great Artists and Great Engineers are especially useful in this way.
    31
    You can use two or more Great People of different types, as required, to enter a ―olden Age‖ where your cities produce additional coins and hammers for eight turns (normal game speed). (In BtS, only one great person is required to start your first Golden Age.) Since the effect is very short-term, unlike most other uses of Great People, a Golden Age should only be used when truly needed. Some examples: you are building several Wonders simultaneously; you need to boost production and income before a war and/or unit upgrades; you need to catch up with rival Civs in a ―pace race‖


    The number of Great People required to start a golden age increases by 1 with each golden age they produce. (Building the Taj Mahal, however, results in a golden age that does not use up a Great Person, nor does it increase the Great Person requirement for the next golden age.)
    Also in BtS, Golden Ages have been improved and have become more worthwhile. You can make civics changes without anarchy, and great person production increases by 100% for the duration of the Golden Age.


    8.2.1 GREAT ARTISTS
    Send a Great Artist to a recently captured city (especially a capital) to produce a ―reat Work‖ the 4000-point culture bonus (regular speed) ends revolt, pushes out the city’s cultural boundaries, and makes the city productive instantly.

    Using Great Artists in this way also pushes out your cultural borders, to the point of capturing tiles and even cities (―lipping‖ from neighboring rivals. This is commonly known as a ―ulture bomb‖

    The culture points added to a city by a Great Work count toward those needed for a cultural victory.
    In BtS, a Great Artist can be used to found one of the corporations.


    If you’re not pursuing a cultural victory, however, Great Artists are usually considered the weakest GP type. For this reason, they are often the best choice of GP to use to start a golden age.
    8.2.2 GREAT SCIENTISTS
    The best use of an early-game Great Scientist (GS) is usually to build an Academy in the Science City or your capital.

    Mid-game Great Scientists can lightbulb technologies on the path to Liberalism (Philosophy, Paper, Education). Alternatively, if you decide not to pursue Liberalism, the best use of Great Scientists would be settling them as super-specialists in your science city.

    Use late-game GS to help research specific (expensive) techs, and/or to build Academies in other cities now producing sufficient research to justify it. Settling them in the late game will rarely result in enough research points to be equivalent to what you’d get from lightbulbing techs.
    In BtS, a Great Scientist can be used to found certain corporations.


    8.2.3 GREAT MERCHANTS
    You are usually best off merging Great Merchants into your Commerce/Wall Street City. The +1 food is often as much a benefit as the additional revenue.
    Or, if you need the gold—usually for upgrading your military—send them to a large, far-off city on a trade mission. (BtS: The city that contains the Temple of Artemis almost always yields the most gold for a trade mission.)

    In BtS, a Great Merchant can be used to found certain corporations.


    32
    8.2.4 GREAT PROPHETS
    If you have a holy city, use the Great Prophet to build the religion’s shrine, which brings in extra gold and helps spread the religion.

    Early Great Prophets lightbulb some useful technologies, but by mid-game, their best use (if all the shrines have been built) is to settle them in your Wall Street city, or to start a golden age.
    BtS: Great Prophets do not found corporations.


    8.2.5 GREAT ENGINEERS
    The best use of Great Engineers to rush-build a World Wonder.
    However, it’s always worth checking to see what technology a GE will lightbulb. And in BtS, they found some corporations. In the late game, their best use may be settlement in your Ironworks city.


    8.2.6 GREAT GENERALS (WARLORDS)
    Merge Great Generals (GG) into your military city to become military instructors. Every military instructor in a city adds +2 XPs to all new military units built there.
    Once you discover Education (BtS: Military Science), use a Great General to build a Military Academy in your military city or cities to add +50% production speed to military units.

    A Great General is the only Great Person type that cannot be used to start a Golden Age.




    8.2.6.1 Warlord Units
     
     
    If you plan on doing a lot of warring, you may find it useful to make the Great General into a Warlord— basically, merge him with a unit or units.

    Warlord units can be upgraded for free. In addition, unlike regular unit upgrades, a Warlord unit retains all of its XPs when upgraded.

    One popular use in this regard is to merge the Great General with a single, fast-moving unit (a Scout, Chariot, or Horse Archer) which has at least 6 XPs; then give the unit the Combat I, Medic I, Medic II, and (new, Warlord-unit-only) Medic III promotions. Units on the same tile as this unit will heal very quickly, allowing your campaigns to proceed faster (your healthier units will also withstand counterattacks better). In addition, this will instantly give you a Level 6 unit, allowing you to build both the Heroic Epic and West Point National Wonders as soon as they are available.

    If you use a GG for a Medic III unit, DO NOT take advantage of the free unit upgrade option available to a Warlord unit! Your medical unit may then become the strongest unit in the stack and be chosen to defend against a counter-attack—you may lose the unit as a result!
    8.2.7 GREAT SPIES (BTS)
    One of the best uses for Great Spies in the early game is to use them to infiltrate an advanced civilization. This will give you a large number of espionage points against that civ—specifically, enough to send ordinary spies in to steal several technologies. Wait until you have finished researching Alphabet so you know which civ is the best target (Financial leaders are usually best).

    Later in the game, infiltration will not usually give you enough espionage points to steal a technology, so you’re better off using the Great Spy to build Scotland Yard and/or settling them in a city where Scotland Yard has already been built.
    33
    9. DIPLOMACY
     
    9.1 GENERAL
    It’s unwise to trade technologies and resources with every Civ you meet, as this may earn you the enmity of other AI Civs (―ou traded with our worst enemy!‖.

    Meet as many of the other civilizations as you can, learn how they regard one another, and decide who you can make into allies and who will be enemies. Treat them and trade with them (or not) accordingly.

    The best ways to ensure another Civ will get along with you:
    o Share the same religion (this shows up in the mouse-over of the leaderhead as ―e care for our brothers and sisters of the faith‖.

    o Fight against the same enemy in a war. (―ur mutual military struggle brings us closer together.‖

    o Run their favourite civic (provided they’re running it as well). (―ou have wisely chosen your civics.‖


    Other ways to court favour with other civs:
    o Give in to their every request, even if it’s one-sided. (―ou gave us help/tribute!‖ ―ou adopted our state religion/favourite civic‖ ―ou stopped trading with our worst enemy.‖

    o Give them a slight edge in all tech and resource trades. (―ur trade relations have been fair and forthright.‖

    o Maintain open borders with them. (―ur Open Borders bring our people closer together.‖

    o Maintain resource-for-resource trades with them. (―e appreciate the years you have supplied us with resources.‖

    o Stay at peace. (―ears of peace have strengthened our relations.‖

    o Enter into a defensive pact with them. (―ur Defensive Pact proves that we are close friends.‖

    o Avoid diplomatic demerits acquired by demanding tribute, razing cities when at war, trading with worst enemies, declaring war on their friends, having close borders, and/or refusing requests. Also watch for random events that affect diplomacy (BtS) and choose your options accordingly.


    The AI will sometimes demand a spare resource from you in tribute (the Aggressive leaders are notorious for doing this). While it’s tempting to refuse these requests, this will earn you a diplomatic demerit (―ou refused to give us tribute‖. Giving in to the demand will earn you a positive diplomatic point (―ou gave us tribute‖ and you can simply cancel the deal after 10 turns.

    The AI may also demand techs from you with similar consequences based upon whether you accede to or refuse the request. This can be a trickier situation depending on the tech they ask for. Treat it like any other tech trade (that is, follow the tech trading guidelines described previously in this guide)—instead of getting a tech in return, you are earning a diplomatic point. Is it worth it?
    34
    The same goes for requests to stop trading with another civ or even go to war with them. What do you stand to lose or gain? Going to war with a distant civilization may cost you nothing and earn you several diplomatic points with your allies. But also consider who is ―leased‖or ―riendly‖with the target of a war request, as declaring war on them will earn you a ―ou declared war on our friend‖demerit.
    9.2 TRIANGLE DIPLOMACY
    This strategy involves choosing two other AI Civs with whom you intend to have and maintain ―leased‖to ―riendly‖relations. All other AI Civs can, to be blunt, go to hell.

    Ideally, one of the Civs should be a ―et dog‖an aggressive Civ you can easily send to attack other Civs.

    The other should be a relatively peaceful Civ with whom you can trade technologies and resources.

    The best candidates for these roles are mid-to-low ranked Civs, not the most powerful ones who will be your chief rivals.

    Try to avoid choosing two Civs that will be in conflict with one another—i.e. that share borders.

    Also try to choose two Civs who share your religion to avoid religious conflicts.

    If the situation in the game changes, you can always change who your triangle partners will be.
    9.3 WHEOOHRN
     
     
    When an AI leader is preparing for war, the text ―e have enough on our hands right now‖(WHEOORN) appears when you mouse over any of the leader names listed under ―eclare war on‖next to the leaderhead.
    You should always consider whether or not you are the likely target. If you share borders with that leader, and they regard you as anything less than ―riendly‖ and especially if your power rating is lower than theirs, this is a likely possibility.


    In BtS, the AI will consider amphibious invasions—so don’t let down your guard even if the leader at WHEOOHRN is separated from you by water!

    Nevertheless, a number of factors go into the AI declaring war. You may see ―HEOORN‖appear in the diplomacy screen and then disappear several turns later without any conflict erupting.
    35
    10. RELIGION
     
    10.1 GENERAL
    Religions provide gold, culture, happiness, and military intelligence. Don’t underestimate or neglect their impact.

    If you do found a religion, one of your cities will become the religion’s holy city, where you can use a Great Prophet to build the religion’s shrine. The shrine will earn 1 GPT for every city (foreign or domestic) with the religion present. This can bring in a significant amount of income throughout the game.

    The game mechanics have a strong bias against making your capital the holy city; if you have even just one other city, it will become the holy city. Generally, the only way to make your capital the holy city is to found the religion before founding your second city.

    In addition, the game is biased to make a city with no religions present into the holy city.

    It’s often easier to capture a holy city than to found a religion yourself, especially as you rise through the difficulty levels.
    You are more likely to found one of the three early religions (Meditation/Buddhism, Polytheism/Hinduism, Monotheism/Judaism) if you start with their prerequisite technology, Mysticism. (Civs that start with Mysticism: Arabs, Aztecs, Incans, Indians, Spain; in Warlords/BtS, also Korea and the Celts; In BtS, Byzantines, Holy Roman Empire, Mayans)


    The four later religions (Christianity, Confucianism, Taoism, Islam) are usually easiest to found by using some sort of ―lingshot‖ Research all their prerequisite technologies, then either build the Oracle or produce a Great Person (a Great Prophet for Theology/Christianity, Code of Laws/Confucianism, or Divine Right/Islam; a Great Scientist for Philosophy/Taoism) to obtain the required technology before any of the AI Civs do.

    Founding the four later religions provides a free missionary. The three early religions do not.
    Using Open Borders and Missionaries to spread your religion allows you to build an early spy network, since information about each foreign city with your state religion is revealed to you—in particular, its military units. (This is no longer true in BtS.)


    Sharing a religion is one of the best ways to ensure an AI Civ gets along with you.

    Alternatively, having a different religion is often a source of tension with other civs, though some are more fanatical about it than others. Spiritual leaders tend to be especially notorious for this.

    Religions only spread ―utomatically‖(i.e. without using a missionary) to cities with no established religion, along trade routes (rivers, coast, roads), and not reliably.

    Keep in mind that researching technologies that found religions can distract you from researching other technologies that may be more vital.

    Be sure to build the Monastery for any and all religions that spread to your cities. You cannot build these after you discover Scientific Method, which is also when those you have built lose their +10% science bonus. However, you can still use Monasteries to produce Missionaries to spread their religion. Under the Free Religion civic, this will provide +1 happy citizen in a city that previously lacked that religion. It will also provide +1 gold per turn for the city containing that religion’s shrine.
    36
    11. ESPIONAGE
     
    11.1 GENERAL
    Espionage in ―anilla‖Civilization IV and in Warlords is relatively simple. Research Communism, build Scotland Yard, and build Spies (maximum number of spies active at one time: 4). Your spies can enter enemy territory unnoticed, can allow you to access other civs’ city screens, and can, for a certain amount of gold, perform a few sabotage missions—destroying tile improvements or removing all stored production from a city’s current build, for example.


    11.2 BEYOND THE SWORD ESPIONAGE
    In BtS, however, the espionage system in the game was significantly revamped. What follows are a few basic guidelines to using it. All of the remaining material in this section refers to BtS.


    You now accumulate espionage points against other civilizations.

    There are five ways to accumulate these points:
    o Espionage Slider: In addition to the science and culture sliders, there is now an espionage slider that allows you to earmark a percentage of your income toward espionage.

    o Spy Specialists: You can now run a new type of specialist, the spy specialist, who will contribute 3 espionage points each turn, as well as 1 research point and great person points toward a Great Spy.

    o Buildings: Certain buildings now either contribute espionage points and/or increase them:

    Palace (capital)

    Courthouse

    Castle

    Jail

    Intelligence Agency

    Security Bureau

    Scotland Yard (can only be built by a Great Spy)

    o Random Events: Certain random events will give you espionage points, or at least the option of accumulating them. See Section 13: Random Events for more details.

    o Great Spy: You can use a Great Spy for an ―nfiltration‖mission against another civilization, which will grant you several thousand espionage points against that civ. A Great Spy can also build the Scotland Yard special building (+100% espionage in the city where it’s built) or can be settled in a city to produce espionage points. A Great Spy can also move through foreign territory undetected and without risk of discovery, unlike a regular spy.


    You can allocate espionage points in greater or lesser amounts to specific civs in the espionage screen. It’s best to allocate higher ratios to your greatest rivals and nearest neighbors while reducing or even eliminating the ratios versus less significant civs (such as vassal states).
    37
    The best way to accumulate espionage points is through a combination of buildings and running spy specialists. Using the espionage slider, on the other hand, re-allocates commerce to espionage that is usually better going toward research.

    However, another option is to run the espionage slider as high as possible (while reducing all other sliders to 0%) for a few turns until you have enough espionage points to at least see demographic information (such as power ratings) and what the other civs are researching, or for whatever espionage mission you wish to perform.
    Knowing what other civs are researching is hugely beneficial, as it can allow you to avoid duplicating effort—you can research techs that they are not researching and trade for the ones they have researched. It can also alert you to whether a certain civ may be planning on building a certain wonder, trying to found a religion or earn a free Great Person, and so on.


    Leaving a spy inside a city for a few turns reduces the cost of a mission inside that city by 10% per turn to a maximum of 50% after five turns. However, there is a chance that the spy will be discovered and disappear on each turn.

    Some of the most useful espionage missions to perform during warfare:
    o Counter-Intelligence doubles the enemy’s cost of performing espionage missions against you. This needs to be renewed every ten turns or so.

    o A City Revolt on the same turn that your offensive stack attacks the city will eliminate the need to remove the cultural defenses (a city’s cultural defense is zero during a revolt).

    o Sabotage of an enemy resource, especially their sole source of copper, iron, oil, etc., can cripple their military effort by preventing them from producing formidable and dangerous units for several turns.


    You will also want to defend against espionage. Besides the counter-espionage mission listed above, you can also leave spies as sentries in cities and on key resource tiles; they will reduce the chance of success of an enemy spy mission. The Security Bureau also reduces the success chances of enemy missions in and around each city containing one. Please note that the Security Bureau and resident spy’s effects in this regard do not stack.
    38
    12. VASSALS (WARLORDS/BTS)
     
    12.1 GENERAL
    A vassal is an AI civ that becomes subservient to another civ, either AI or human, called the ―aster‖

    Vassal relationships are enabled by Feudalism. At least one of the two civs involved must possess this technology in order to establish a vassal relationship.

    Civilizations can become vassals in one of two ways:
    o Voluntary: A civilization can choose to become the vassal of another civilization. This usually only happens if a smaller, weaker AI civ is threatened by a larger civ. The weaker civ may voluntarily offer itself as a vassal to a powerful third civilization in exchange for protection. The vassal may, at any time, cancel this arrangement.

    o Capitulation: A civilization is forced to become a vassal of the civ that is conquering it. The vassal cannot cancel this arrangement unless the vassal’s population and territory grows (or, conversely, the master’s shrinks) to a point where each is at least ½ the size of the master’s.


    Among the consequences of becoming a vassal:
    o No control over diplomacy. The master determines war and peace vis-à-vis other civilizations; the vassal has to go along.

    o Vassals may still make trade agreements with other civs with whom they are not at war, but must cancel those deals if the master orders it.

    o The master can demand resources from the vassal, with a consequence of war if the demand is refused.

    o The master can order the vassal to research a specific technology.

    Just as important to understand are some things that a master cannot do with a vassal:

    o A master cannot declare war on a vassal, nor end the vassal relationship. Unless the vassal decides to break the vassal relationship or refuses a resource demand, you’re stuck with them.

    o A master cannot demand technologies from a vassal, and the vassal is under no obligation to trade technologies to the master. (Be aware that the AI is programmed to never trade any technology that enables the building of a space ship part to another civ.)


    It’s important to understand how vassal relationships work with respect to war and peace.
    o Civ A is at war with Civ B. Civ C is at peace with both. Civ A voluntarily offers to become Civ C’s vassal. If Civ C accepts, Civ A and Civ C are now both at war against Civ B.

    o Civ A is at war with both Civ B and Civ C. Civ A becomes Civ C’s vassal. Civ A, Civ B, and Civ C are now all at peace with one another. Hugs are optional.


    Voluntary vassalage is, therefore, one means by which the AI may draw another Civ into a war. For example, you might start a war against a weak neighbour, only to find yourself suddenly at war with a larger, more powerful civ because your chosen opponent voluntarily became the vassal of another civ.

    A human player cannot become a vassal to an AI civ.
    39
    12.2 ADVANTAGES
    Cost-free access to resources within the vassal’s territory.

    Conversely, the opportunity to deny resources to another civ (by forbidding your vassal from trading with them, or by demanding them yourself).

    +1 happiness in all your cities for each vassal state.

    Tile culture contests: If any of your cities’ BFC tiles were previously claimed by your vassal’s culture, those tiles revert to your ownership once the vassal relationship is established regardless of the level of culture on the tile.
    The opportunity to ―utsource‖research: You can order your vassal to research one technology while you research another (in the diplomacy screen, click ―et’s talk about something else‖ then ―hy don’t you research…‖. You may then be able to trade with your vassal for the technology (the vassal usually needs to be ―leased‖or ―riendly‖with you to be willing to do this). You could also use the Internet to get it from them (provided another civ also has the tech), or use espionage to steal it from them (BtS).


    You have an automatic ally in all wars. If you declare war or are declared upon, the vassal enters the war also, on your side.

    A vassal counts as an eliminated civ toward a conquest win, so you don’t have to do all the dirty work of completely wiping them out. In a similar fashion, 50% of a vassal’s territory and population count toward your required totals for a domination win.
    Vassals must vote for you in all United Nations or Apostolic Palace (BtS) elections for which you are eligible.


    12.3 DISADVANTAGES
    If your vassal capitulated, you will have several unhappy citizens in any cities you took from the vassal because they want to ―ejoin their motherland‖ These unhappy citizens will remain for many, many turns to come.

    You will suffer a -1 diplomatic relations demerit with all other civs for each vassal you have.

    You will incur additional maintenance costs in all of your cities as the result of having a vassal.

    A capitulated vassal will likely have a low diplomatic score for you (furious, annoyed, or cautious) and as a result may not be willing to trade technologies to you.

    If any of your cities are under pressure from your vassal’s culture, you will still need to station troops there to suppress a revolt, even though the city now owns and works all of its BFC tiles.
    12.4 TIPS
    Consider what use you’ll get from a potential vassal. If you mainly want a war ally, the warmonger leaders such as Montezuma, Shaka, or Genghis Khan might make good vassals. Conversely, if you want help with tech research, tech fiends such as Mansa Musa, Pacal, or Huayna Capac would be good choices.

    If you are waging war, keep checking to see if your opponent will offer ―apitulation‖in return for peace. Different leaders have different thresholds for this; some will capitulate readily, after losing a couple of cities; others will refuse until they’re down to their last city. Most fall somewhere in between.
    40
    Remember that if a civ is willing to offer capitulation to you, it is also probably willing to offer it to someone else. Check the power ratings regularly; another civ is unlikely to accept your enemy as a vassal if you are more powerful, since they would automatically be at war with you as a result. However, if you have an ally in the war against the potential vassal, your enemy my capitulate to your ally rather than to you. It may be necessary to bribe your ally to make peace to avoid this scenario. (In BtS, the vassal is supposed to capitulate to the civ that has done it the most damage, but don’t rely on this.)


    Try to avoid razing cities if you intend to make your enemy a vassal. Each razed city will count as a diplomatic demerit vis-à-vis your future vassal and will make tech trading more difficult.

    If you want the vassal to be of more use than just counting toward either a domination or conquest victory, make sure you leave them enough useful land and cities for whatever purpose you intend for them (research, military).

    Any technology that you trade to your vassal can in turn be traded to other civs. You may therefore want to be careful what technologies you trade or give to your vassal.

    There are two main reasons why many players will not accept a capitulating vassal, opting instead for complete obliteration:
    o The ―otherland‖unhappiness, which deteriorates at an abysmally slow rate; and

    o The 50% pop/land contribution toward a domination victory, where 100% (by completely conquering the other civ) might give you an earlier win.


    12.5 COLONIES (BTS)
    Colonies, which existed in Civilization III, were re-introduced in BtS as a type of vassals.


    Once you have two or more cities on a separate landmass from that which houses your capital city, you may ―iberate‖those cities and have them form a colony.
    Cities on separate landmasses (especially four or more) have extremely high maintenance costs in BtS. If you make those cities into a colony, the maintenance costs go away.


    The colony has the same relationship to its originating civilization as a vassal does to its master, with some exceptions:
    o There is no diplomatic demerit for having a colony.

    o The colony relationship cannot be broken by either party.


    You earn a huge diplomatic bonus with your colony for ―iberating‖them. They are likely to remain ―riendly‖with you for the remainder of the game.

    However, remember that your new colony inherits all of your technical knowledge and may start trading those techs to other civs.
    41
    13. CORPORATIONS (BTS)
     
     
    Corporations were introduced in the Beyond the Sword expansion pack, so this section is only relevant to BtS.


    Corporations are kind of like late-game religions. They have to be founded (by Great People rather than by being first to discover a certain technology); they spread to other cities (though only on purpose, through the use of an Executive rather than a Missionary); and they return income to the ―ead office‖city. Also, certain civics (Mercantilism and State Property) function similarly to the Theocracy civic for religions, restricting the operations of corporations in some way (details below).

    Corporations take in excess resources (such as fish, grains, metals,etc.) and convert them into other outputs (such as culture, food, production, gold, oil, aluminum, etc.).

    Unlike religions, however, corporations have costs.
    o Operating costs: There is an operating cost for each city which is based upon the number of resources that the corporation is consuming; the more resources consumed, the higher the operating cost. Note, however, that you only pay operating costs for domestic cities to which you’ve spread the corporation; if you spread a corporation to the cities of another civilization, they pay the operating costs for their cities.

    o Spread cost: There is also a one-time cost you must pay each time you spread a corporation to a city, foreign or domestic.


    It’s best to found corporations in the Wall Street city in order to multiply and maximize the gold per turn that you earn for each city.

    As with city maintenance, courthouses reduce the operating costs of corporations by 50%.

    The best corporations are:
    o Sid’s Sushi Co. (Required GP: Great Merchant) Grants additional food and culture based upon how many seafood and rice resources you either own or trade for. It’s better than its rival, Cereal Mills, because seafood tends to be more common than the grain resources on most maps, and it produces culture as well as food. The extra food allows you to grow your cities and run more specialists (running a few merchant specialists will usually easily pay for the operating costs of the corporation). Sid’s Sushi is also the best corporation to spread to other civilizations in order to reap more financial rewards. Remember, though, that it produces culture as well as food; don’t spread it to a foreign city that is directly on your borders.

    o Mining Inc. (Required GP: Great Engineer) Gives you additional production (hammers) in each city where it’s spread based upon the number of certain production resources you have (copper, iron, gold, silver, coal). In the late game, the focus often shifts from commerce to hammers (to build space ship parts for a space ship victory, for example, or to build military units for a conquest victory), so spreading Mining Inc. to your best production cities to make them even more productive can make a huge difference. It’s usually best to not spread Mining Inc. to rival civs, however.


    Both of these corporations can also be spread to marginal cities with low food or production to make them more worthwhile.
    42
    The value of other corporations is, like many wonders, more situational.
    o Aluminum Inc. and Standard Ethanol (Required GP: Great Scientist) are useful if you lack access to a key resource (aluminum or oil, respectively). They also produce additional research, so they can be useful if you’re behind in technology.

    o Civilized Jewelers (Required GP: Great Artist) is most useful if you’re pursuing a cultural victory. However, it is the only corporation that produces gold in addition to the income it returns to the head office city. It can, therefore, be the most profitable of all the corporations. It competes with Mining Inc. for some resources, so the two corporations cannot co-exist in the same city.

    o Creative Constructions (Required GP: Great Engineer) and Cereal Mills (Required GP: Great Merchant) are ―onsolation corporations‖if you fail to found Mining Inc. and/or Sid’s Sushi Co. respectively (though Creative Constructions does produce additional culture, which Mining Inc. does not, so it can be handy for cultural wins).


    Remember that corporations can only be founded by Great People. Unless you anticipate being able to produce the required Great Person with relative ease in the late game, you should save the required Great Person if you generate one.

    Also remember that you have to be running specific civics for corporations to operate, and the other civs also need to be running one of those civics if you want to spread a corporation to them and receive income from them for it.
    o Free Market is the best corporation civic, with maintenance costs reduced by 25%.

    o Environmentalism allows corporations to operate, but with maintenance costs increased by 25% (50% higher than Free Market!).

    o Mercantilism prevents foreign corporations from spreading to the cities of the civ running the civic and will nullify the effect of branches already established there.

    o State Property prevents all corporations, including your own, from either spreading or operating.


    Spreading corporations to a civilization running Environmentalism can put a serious dent in their economy. However, be aware that the civilization may change to State Property to counter the effects, and thus deprive you of corporate royalty income.

    Once you spread a corporation to a city other than the one where it was founded, other civilizations may be willing to trade excess resources they have which are used by the corporation. Remember, however, that each of those trades, while increasing the benefits of the corporation, will also increase its operating costs. In addition, if you spread the corporation to your trading partner, they may cancel the trade so that they can benefit more fully from the corporation.

    If you are pursuing a domination win, corporations may not be of any value to you, since you will most likely want to run State Property to lower the maintenance costs of your vast and growing empire.

    Corporations, however, can be extremely valuable in the pursuit of cultural or space race victories—especially the right types of corporations (Sid’s Sushi, Civilized Jewelers, or Creative Constructions for culture; Mining Inc. or Creative Constructions for space ship production, and, if needed, Aluminum Inc. for space ship build-accelerating aluminum if you don’t have any).
    43
    14. RANDOM EVENTS (BTS)
     
     
    Like corporations, random events were also introduced with the Beyond the Sword expansion pack, so this section, like the previous one, only refers to BtS.

    However, there are two ―andom events‖that may be considered to exist in vanilla Civ IV and in Warlords:

    o Discovering a mineral resource (gold, silver, gems, copper, iron, aluminum, coal, uranium) in a mine. There is a small chance of this happening for a worked mine each turn. The mine must therefore be within a city’s fat cross, and must have a citizen assigned to work it.

    o A forest or jungle growing on a tile that was previously bare (or had its forest or jungle chopped). The likelihood of this event is enhanced by having adjacent tiles with forest or jungle and is decreased by having a road on the tile.


    Random events are exactly that: chance occurrences that affect your civilization and cities. They can be positive or negative.

    Random events can be relatively simple, such as a windfall from a gold mine or a tornado that destroys a few tile improvements. They can also be very complex, such as quests that require you to perform a series of tasks in order to accrue some benefit or choice of benefits—such as building a certain number of libraries or chariots.

    Random events are partially based upon what’s occurring in your civilization, so you can increase or decrease the likelihood of certain events by taking certain actions.
    o For example, one random event is the ―iscovered manuscripts‖event, which usually occurs because you have a tile with city ruins within your borders. Leaving these tiles unimproved increases the chances of this beneficial event occurring. And it can occur more than once.


    Some events give you a choice of rewards/consequences. Read each one carefully and consider which would be most beneficial or least harmful based upon your overall strategy and goals.

    It’s a good idea to maintain a certain amount of gold in your treasury to deal with random events.
    o Negative random events can sometimes be ―ought off‖ pay a certain amount of gold out of your treasury and the random event has no effect. Think of it as the game’s version of a protection racket.

    o Some positive random events can have their benefit increased by spending some gold. For example, the ―iscovered manuscripts‖event will give you a certain number of research points toward a specific technology with a 50% chance of doubling the points gained if you spend some money out of your treasury.

    o In the early game, 50 to 100 gold will be sufficient to deal with most random events; by the mid-game, 100 to 300 gold will usually be needed, and by the late game, 300 to 500.


    If you don’t like them, random events can be turned off by using the Custom Game screen to generate the game.
    44
    15. VICTORY
     
    15.1 GENERAL
    The higher the difficulty level, the earlier in the game you need to decide which victory you will pursue, then direct your energies and strategy toward achieving it.

    The earlier in game-time that your victory is achieved, the higher the adjusted score and ranking the game gives you, regardless of difficulty level and victory type.

    Other factors affecting your final game score: population, land area, technologies known, world wonders owned.

    Keep an eye on what your rivals are doing. You may be pursuing a space race win only to be blind-sided by another civ that wins by diplomacy or culture.
    15.2 CONQUEST/DOMINATION



    Strategic Emphasis: Military and Technology
     
     
    Just as important to this strategy and victory is what you will de-emphasize: you will not found religions, nor will you bother with most Wonders or buildings unless they contribute, directly or indirectly, to military production and strength.

    Focus your research primarily on military-oriented techs; trade for the rest, or demand them either in tribute or in exchange for peace treaties.

    Achieving a Conquest victory, where you eliminate all your rivals, will likely require you to be at war constantly. You will need to manage war-weariness with civics and/or buildings and Wonders.

    If you’re intent on achieving a conquest victory rather than a domination victory, you will need to raze most of the cities you conquer instead of keeping them. Otherwise you will exceed the population and land thresholds for a domination win. Alternatively, you can turn off the domination victory option in the custom game settings.

    If you’re pursuing a domination victory, you will likely want to run the State Property civic as soon as possible to offset the maintenance costs of a large empire. This means that corporations will become useless to you, so don’t bother founding any.
    15.3 CULTURAL



    Strategic Emphasis: Culture and Diplomacy
     
     
    Again, you will de-emphasize other game elements, military in particular. Don’t neglect your military; just have enough up-to-date units in your border and coastal cities to convince your rivals to not attack you.

    Also, manage diplomacy very carefully to avoid conflicts that will distract you from pursuing the cultural win.

    Founding religions can be extremely useful for this type of victory. Religions and religious buildings contribute cultural points. Also, by spreading your state religion to other Civs (and ensuring that they do not have a different state religion by founding and ―oarding‖the other religions), you can ensure good diplomatic relations and avoid wars.
    45
    While it’s not essential, one of the best ways to achieve a cultural victory is to have at least nine cities. This allows you to build nine temples for each available religion in your cities which, in turn, allows you to build three of each religion’s ―athedrals‖(one in each cultural city) which boost culture output by 50%.

    Corporations such as Sid’s Sushi, Civilized Jewelers, or Creative Constructions can be very useful in pursuit of this victory condition, as they all provide additional culture.

    In addition, it’s best to plan for a Cultural victory early so you can be the first to research Music (for the free Great Artist which can be used for a Great Work in one of your cultural cities) and so you build the Sistine Chapel for its cultural output boost from every specialist (not just artists).
    15.4 SPACE



    Strategic Emphasis: Technology and Production
     
     
    You will likely need to be the tech leader to achieve this victory. The AI has a preference for pursuing this victory condition, so you will likely find yourself in a race with one or more rival Civs.

    A good strategy for this victory is to pursue military goals early in the game, giving you enough cities for research, commerce, and production, while reducing your rivals’ capacity for the same. Then, by mid-game, become a ―uilder‖ forgoing wars in order to devote your Civ to research.
    Tip: Mining Inc. or Creative Constructions are very attractive corporations for pursuing this victory, as they provide vital extra production to help produce space ship parts.


    15.5 DIPLOMATIC



    Strategic Emphasis: Military and Technology, or Religion
     
     
    Why military? The best way to ensure a diplomatic victory is to conquer enough of the world’s population so you have all the necessary votes to win a diplomatic victory. (Note: This is no longer possible as of BtS 3.13 or later unless you have vassals.)


    An alternative strategy is to found as many of the world’s religions as you can—even all of them. Then spread only one to as many other Civs as you can to ensure good relations with everyone.

    Like a cultural victory, you will need to start planning for a diplomatic win early on and make diplomatic decisions accordingly, courting enough reasonably large civilizations to ensure you have the votes you need.
    15.6 TIME



    Strategic Emphasis: Military and Diplomacy
     
     
    To achieve a time victory, you need to make sure your rivals cannot build the spaceship, the UN, a powerful military, or three legendary cities—in other words, ensure that other Civs cannot achieve any of the other victories. The best way to do this is to war with them and have them war with each other, thus slowing down their rates of advancement and re-directing production to military.

    Remember, however, that your score is higher the earlier you win; time victories, therefore, almost always have low scores.

    Another problem with time victories is that you may lose because the AI achieves one of the other victories before the game times out. You will need to watch the victory screen closely and may need to go to war or make heavy use of espionage in order to prevent the AI from winning.
    46
    APPENDIX: COMMON ACRONYMNS & ABBREVIATIONS
     
     
    Here is a list of some of the acronyms and abbreviations commonly used on Civ- related web sites and message boards such as the Civilization Fanatics’ Center:

    AH = Animal Husbandry

    AI = Artificial Intelligence

    AP = Apostolic Palace

    BtS = Beyond the Sword (expansion pack)

    BW = Bronze Working

    CE = Cottage Economy

    EP = Espionage Points

    FR = Free Religion

    GE = Great Engineer

    GG = Great General

    GM = Great Merchant

    GP = Great People/Person

    GPP = Great Person Points

    GPT = Gold Per Turn

    GS = Great Scientist

    GSpy = Great Spy

    GW = Great Wall

    HA = Horse Archer

    HBR = Horseback Riding

    HE = Heroic Epic

    HR = Hereditary RuleIW = Iron Working

    LOL = What you do when Montezuma attacks your mechanized infantry with horse archers

    NE = National Epic

    OR = Organized Religion

    REX = Rapid Expansion

    RNG = Random Number Generator

    SE = Specialist Economy

    SoL = Statue of Liberty

    SP = State Property

    SR = State Religion

    TGD = Three Gorges Dam

    UB = Unique Building

    UU = Unique Unit

    WFYABTA = We fear you are becoming too advanced

    WHEOOHRN = We have enough on our hands right now

    WP = West Point

    WW = War Weariness

    XP = Experience Points

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    • Christ, Karl, The Romans: An Introduction to Their History and Civilization;
    • Cicero, De Senectute;
    • Cicero, The Republic, The Laws;
    • Cicero, The Verrine Orations I: Against Caecilius. Against Verres, Part I; Part II, Book 1 (Loeb Classical Library);
    • Cicero, The Verrine Orations I: Against Caecilius. Against Verres, Part I; Part II, Book 2 (Loeb Classical Library);
    • CIO Decisions: Aligning I.T. and Business in the MidMarket Enterprise;
    • CIO Insight: Best Practices for IT Business Leaders;
    • CIO: Business Technology Leadership;
    • Clay, Lucius Du Bignon, Decision in Germany;
    • Cohen, William S., Dragon Fire;
    • Colacello, Bob, Ronnie and Nancy: Their Path to the White House, 1911 to 1980;
    • Coll, Steve, The Bin Ladens: An Arabian Family in the American Century;
    • Collins, Francis S., The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief ;
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    • Compliance & Technology;
    • Computerworld: The Voice of IT Management;
    • Connolly, Peter & Hazel Dodge, The Ancient City: Life in Classical Athens & Rome;
    • Conti, Greg, Googling Security: How Much Does Google Know About You?;
    • Converge: Strategy and Leadership for Technology in Education;
    • Cowan, Ross, Roman Legionary 58 BC - AD 69;
    • Cowell, F. R., Life in Ancient Rome;
    • Creel, Richard, Religion and Doubt: Toward a Faith of Your Own;
    • Cross, Robin, General Editor, The Encyclopedia of Warfare: The Changing Nature of Warfare from Prehistory to Modern-day Armed Conflicts;
    • CSO: The Resource for Security Executives:
    • Cummins, Joseph, History's Greatest Wars: The Epic Conflicts that Shaped the Modern World;
    • D'Amato, Raffaele, Imperial Roman Naval Forces 31 BC-AD 500;
    • Dallek, Robert, An Unfinished Life: John F. Kennedy 1917-1963;
    • Daly, Dennis, Sophocles' Ajax;
    • Dando-Collins, Stephen, Caesar's Legion: The Epic Saga of Julius Caesar's Elite Tenth Legion and the Armies of Rome;
    • Darwish, Nonie, Now They Call Me Infidel: Why I Renounced Jihad for America, Israel, and the War on Terror;
    • Davis Hanson, Victor, Makers of Ancient Strategy: From the Persian Wars to the Fall of Rome;
    • Dawkins, Richard, The Blind Watchmaker;
    • Dawkins, Richard, The God Delusion;
    • Dawkins, Richard, The Selfish Gene;
    • de Blij, Harm, Why Geography Matters: Three Challenges Facing America, Climate Change, The Rise of China, and Global Terrorism;
    • Defense Systems: Information Technology and Net-Centric Warfare;
    • Defense Systems: Strategic Intelligence for Info Centric Operations;
    • Defense Tech Briefs: Engineering Solutions for Military and Aerospace;
    • Dennett, Daniel C., Breaking the Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon;
    • Dennett, Daniel C., Consciousness Explained;
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    • Devries, Kelly, et. al., Battles of the Ancient World 1285 BC - AD 451 : From Kadesh to Catalaunian Field;
    • Dickens, Charles, Great Expectations;
    • Digital Communities: Building Twenty-First Century Communities;
    • Doctorow, E.L., Homer & Langley;
    • Dodds, E. R., The Greeks and the Irrational;
    • Dostoevsky, Fyodor, The House of the Dead (Google Books, Sony e-Reader);
    • Dostoevsky, Fyodor, The Idiot;
    • Douglass, Elisha P., Rebels and Democrats: The Struggle for Equal Political Rights and Majority Role During the American Revolution;
    • Doyle, Sir Arthur Conan, The Hound of the Baskervilles & The Valley of Fear;
    • Dr. Dobb's Journal: The World of Software Development;
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    • DT: Defense Technology International;
    • Dunbar, Richard, Alcatraz;
    • Education Channel Partner: News, Trends, and Analysis for K-20 Sales Professionals;
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    • EGM: Electronic Gaming Monthly, the No. 1 Videogame Magazine;
    • Ehrman, Bart D., Lost Christianities: The Battles for Scriptures and the Faiths We Never Knew;
    • Ehrman, Bart D., Misquoting Jesus: The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why;
    • Electronic Engineering Times: The Industry Newsweekly for the Creators of Technology;
    • Ellis, Joseph J., American Sphinx: The Character of Thomas Jefferson;
    • Ellis, Joseph J., His Excellency: George Washington;
    • Emergency Management: Strategy & Leadership in Critical Times;
    • Emerson, Steven, American Jihad: The Terrorists Living Among Us;
    • Erlewine, Robert, Monotheism and Tolerance: Recovering a Religion of Reason (Indiana Series in the Philosophy of Religion);
    • ESD: Embedded Systems Design;
    • Everitt, Anthony, Augustus: The Life of Rome's First Emperor;
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    • eWeek: The Enterprise Newsweekly;
    • Federal Computer Week: Powering the Business of Government;
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    • Frazer, James George, The Golden Bough (Volume 3): A Study in Magic and Religion (Sony eReader);
    • Freeh, Louis J., My FBI: Bringing Down the Mafia, Investigating Bill Clinton, and Fighting the War on Terror;
    • Freeman, Charles, The Greek Achievement: The Foundations of the Western World;
    • Friedman, Thomas L. The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century Further Updated and Expanded/Release 3.0;
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    • Humphrey, Caroline & Vitebsky, Piers, Sacred Architecture;
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    • Info World: Information Technology News, Computer Networking & Security;
    • Information Week: Business Innovation Powered by Technology:
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